Ermeland (Er'meh-lant), a district of the old province of Prussia, inland of the Frisches Haff.


Ermenonville (Erm'nongveel'), a village 18 miles NNE. of Paris. Rousseau died here.


Erne, a river of Ulster, rising in Lough Gowna, on the borders of Longford and Cavan counties, and flowing 72 miles north-west, through Loughs Oughter and Erne, to Donegal Bay. Lough Erne extends 40 miles through Fermanagh county, consisting of two lakes, the Upper and Lower, which are joined by a network of channels 10 miles long. Both are studded with green hilly islands, and teem with salmon and trout.


Erroman'go, one of the New Hebrides (q.v.), the scene of the martyrdom of the missionary John Williams.


Eryx, the ancient name of a mountain in NW. Sicily, near Drepanum (mod. Trapani), with a famous temple of Venus, hence called Eryclna, Erzberg. See Eisenerz.


Erzerum (Er-zer-oom'), a town in Turkish Armenia, not far from the Kara-Su, or western source of the Euphrates. It stands 6200 feet above sea-level, surrounded by mountains. In spite of the Transcaucasian Railway, Erzerum is still an entrepot between Europe and the interior of Asia, particularly Persia. It imports shawls, silk goods, cotton, tobacco, rice, indigo, etc, and exports corn, sheep and cattle, horses, mules, gall-nuts, and copper and iron wares.

Pop. 40,000. Erzerum, which passed to the Turka in 1517, had early in the 19th century 100,000 inhabitants; but it suffered much in the wars of 1829, 1854-55, and 1877-78.


Erzgebirge (Ertz'ge-bir'ge, g hard; ' Ore Mountains '), a mountain-chain stretching SW. and NE. for 96 miles on the confines of Saxony and Bohemia, from the Elbe valley to the Fichtel-gebirge, and culminating in the Keilberg (4052 feet) and Fichtelberg (3980). Silver and lead are the chief metals; next come tin, iron, cobalt.


Esbjerg (Es-byerg; g hard), a port of Denmark, the best on the west coast of Jutland, with a large export trade in cattle, etc, mostly to England. Its harbour was rebuilt in 1868-74, and the pop. has grown from 4000 to 15,000.

Eschscholtz Bay

Eschscholtz Bay (Esh-sholtz), the innermost part of Kotzebue Sound, in Alaska. It was named after the naturalist Eschscholtz (1793-1834), who sailed with Kotzebue.


Eschwege (Esh'vay-ge; g hard), a town in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, on the Werra, 40 miles ESE. of Cassel by rail. Pop. 9892.


Eschweiler (Esh'vei-ler), an industrial town of Rhenish Prussia, 8 miles ENE. of Aix-la-Chapelle, has important iron, zinc, and tin works, machine-shops, tanneries, etc. Pop. 22.889.


Esdraelon (Ez-dra-ee'lon), or Plain of Jezreel, a fertile valley of Palestine, constituting the basin of the Kishon, extends westwards from Mount Hernion to the slopes of the Carmel range. Here Gideon defeated the Midianites, and here in 1799 the Turks were defeated by the French.