Etive (Et'iv), a salmon-river and a sea-loch of Argyllshire. The river runs from a loch on the Moor of Rannoch, near Kingshouse Inn, 15 miles south-westward to the loch, which itself extends 10 1/2 miles south-westward, then 8 3/4 westward, until atDunstaffnage Castle, 3 1/2 miles NNE. of Oban, it merges in the Firth of Lome. Narrowing from 1 1/2 mile to less than 2 furlongs at Connel Ferry, its reef-barred entrance, where the depth too decreases from 420 feet to 6 at low-water, this loch offers a good example of an ancient submerged glen. Its scenery is magnificent, the upper reach closely engirt by mountains, of which the loftiest are Ben Cruachan (3689 feet) and Ben Starav (3541). See Ardchattan and Dun-Etna (modern Sicilian Monte Gibello - the last part of the name being the Arabic Jebel Italianised), an isolated volcanic mountain close to the east coast of Sicily, with a base 90 miles in circumference, and a height of 10,850 feet. It slopes gently up to a single cone, containing the crater, a chasm 1000 feet in depth and from 2 to 3 miles in circumference. The regularity of the slope is, however, broken on the east by an immense gully, 4 or 5 miles in diameter, and 2000 to 4000 feet deep. Many secondary cones are dotted all over the flanks of the mountain, the principal being the Monti Rossi, 450 feet high, twin peaks which were cast up in 1669. The slopes are divided into three sharply defined zones, the cultivated, the woody, and the desert region. This last, extending from about 6300 feet upwards, is a dreary waste of black lava, scoriae, ashes, and sand, covered during the greater part of the year with snow. The wooded region, which stretches down to the line of 2000 feet, is planted with forests of chestnuts, beeches, birches, pines, maples, and oaks. Below this lies the cultivated zone, a thickly peopled region of great fertility. The ascent is usually made from Catania (q.v.), a town on the coast to the south. In 1169 Catania was destroyed; in 1329 a new crater opened near the Val del Bove ; in 1444 the cone fell into the crater; in 1537 two villages perished; from 1603 to 1620 Etna was almost continually in activity ; and in 1666 three new craters were formed. In 1669 a chasm 12 miles long opened in the flank of the mountain ; in 1755 a large flood of water was poured down from the eastern gully; in 1852-53 there was a violent nine months' eruption, when a torrent of lava, 6 miles long by 2 broad, and some 12 feet in depth, was ejected. In 1880 an observatory was built on the south side of the mountain, 9075 feet above the sea, being the highest inhabited house in Europe (nearly 1000 feet higher than the hospice of the Great St Bernard).
See Rodwell, Etna and its Eruptions (1878); and Sartorius von Waltershausen, Der Aetna, edited by Von Lasaulx (2 vols. Leip. 1880).