Ex'eter, the capital of Devonshire, 171 miles by rail WSW. of London, and 75 SW. of Bristol. Dominated by higher hills, it is built on the summit and slopes of a flat ridge, rising 150 feet from the left bank of the Exe; and, having been modernised chiefly in its suburbs, it is a pleasant antique city. The quaint old High and Fore Streets, crossed by North and South Streets, still follow the line of the Ickneld Way; and the walls in great part remain, though their four gateways were demolished between 1769 and 1819, and though Rougemont Castle (1068) was almost all swept away in 1774. In 932 Athelstan founded here a Benedictine monastery, and hither in 1050 Edward the Confessor translated the western bishopric from Crediton; but St Peter's Cathedral was not begun till sixty-two years afterwards. Measuring 408 feet by 76 (or 140 across the transepts), and 66 feet high, it is a long, low edifice, with massive transeptal towers - a feature imitated at Ottery St Mary but otherwise unique. These towers, 140 feet high, are the original Norman ones, but the rest of the pile, rebuilt between 1280 and 1369, is mainly in the purest Geometrical Decorated. Special features are the exterior western screen (c. 1388), adorned with sixty-seven statues of saints and princes; the beautiful choir-screen (1324), surmounted by the fine organ (1665); the minstrels' gallery (1353); a clock, dating from 1317 or earlier; the Great Peter bell, brought from Llandaff in 1482, recast in 1616, and weighing 12,500 lb.; and the chapter-house (1420-78), containing 8000 MSS. and early books. The picturesque guildhall (1464) has a cinque-cento facade (1593); of modern buildings, the most noteworthy are the Devon and Exeter Hospital (1743), the Lunatic Asylum (1865), and the Albert Memorial Museum (1868). The chief public walk is Northernhay. A ship-canal (1563-1827) extends 5 miles to the tideway at Topsham; and Exeter has large nurseries and manufactures of gloves, agricultural implements, etc, besides being the chief mart of ' Honiton' lace. The ' ever loyal city' got its earliest charter from Henry II. some time prior to 1162 ; in 1537 was made a county of itself, in 1888 a county borough ; and in 1885 lost one of its two members. Pop. in 1901 of mun. borough (as extended in 1900) 47,185; parl, borough, 53,141. The Celtic Caerwisc, the Roman Isca Damnoniorum, and in 876 the Exan-ceaster of the West Saxons, who till 926 shared it with the Britons, Exeter was six times captured between 876 and 1646, and three other times besieged. Natives were Archbishop Baldwin, Cardinal Langton (doubtfully), John Vowel or Hoker, the historian of Exeter (1525-1601), the Judicious Hooker, Sir Thomas Bodley, and Henrietta of Orleans. See works by P. Freeman (1873), E. Freeman (1887), and Worthy (1892).