Falkirk, a town of Stirlingshire, 3 miles SW. of its seaport Grangemouth, 22 NE. of Glasgow, and 26 WNW. of Edinburgh. Including now the suburbs of Grahamston, Bainsford, Laurieston, and Camelon, it was constituted a parliamentary burgh in 1832, and with Airdrie, Hamilton, Lanark, and Linlithgow returns one member. Its parish church - the Eglais Bhrec, Varia Capella, or Faw ('speckled') Kirk of chartularies and local tradition - was rebuilt in 1810. The famous cattle 'trysts' or fairs, where stock was sold to an annual value of £1,000,000, have been largely superseded by the weekly auctions. The iron manufacture is carried on busily at Carron (q.v.) and elsewhere. Pop. (1851) 8752 ; (1901) 29,280. At Falkirk on 22d July 1298 Edward I. disastrously defeated Wallace, and on 17th January 1746 Prince Charles Edward defeated Hawley. Antoninus' Wall (q.v.) is the chief antiquity.
Falkland, a royal burgh (since 1458) of Fife, at the NE. base of the steep East Lomond Hill (1471 feet), 22 miles N. of Edinburgh. Nothing remains of the old castle of the Earls of Fife, in Avhich David, Duke of Rothesay, was starved to death (1402); but there are stately remains of the later royal palace (c. 1450-1542). It was the death-place of James V. With the estate and a modern mansion (1844), it was purchased in 1888 by the Marquis of Bute, and by him elaborately restored. Pop. 1045. See Wood's Historical Description of Falkland (Kirkcaldy, 1888).
Fall River, a busy manufacturing city and port of entry of Massachusetts, at the mouth of the Taunton River, 49 miles S. of Boston by rail. It has a deep and capacious harbour, and is well built, the handsome city-hall and many other buildings being constructed of a fine granite quarried in the vicinity. Fall River is noted for its cotton-mills, other manufactures being nails and machinery. Abundant water-power is supplied by a tributary of the Taunton, which falls 130 feet in its last half-mile. Pop. (1870) 26,766 ; (1880) 48,961; (1900) 104,863.
False Bay. See Cape Colony.
Falster, a Danish island in the Baltic, south of Zealand. Area, 183 sq. m.; pop. 34,212.
Falun, or Fahlun, a town of Sweden, 57 miles W. of Gefle by rail. It has for over six centuries been famous for its copper-mines, though the annual yield of ore has dwindled from 3150 tons in 1650 to about 400 tons. The excavations extend for miles underground. Pop. 9507.
Famagosta, or Famagusta, a decayed seaport on the east coast of Cyprus, on the supposed site of ancient Arsinoe. Pop. 3500.
Fanning, or American Island, a coral island in the Pacific, lying in 3° 51' N. lat. and 159o 22' W. long. It was formally annexed by Britain in 1888. Area, 15 sq. m.; pop. 150. The name Fanning Islands is sometimes given to the group comprising Fanning, Christmas, New York or Washington, Jarvis, and Palmyra Islands.