Falmouth, a Cornish seaport, on the south side of the Fal's estuary, 18 miles NNE. of the Lizard, and 66 by a branch line (1863) WS W. of Plymouth. The harbour, one of the best in England, is 5 miles long by 1 to 2 miles wide, and 12 to 18 fathoms deep. The entrance is defended on the west by Pendennis Castle (c. 1544), which crowns a rock 198 feet high, and which in 1646 surrendered to Fairfax after a five months' siege; on the east, by St Mawes Castle (1543). Pop. of municipal borough (1881) 5973; (1901) 11,789 (within boundary as extended in 1892); of the parliamentary borough of Penryn and Falmouth, since 1885 returning only one member, 16,296. From 1688 to 1850 Falmouth was a principal packet-station for foreign mails. There is a considerable pilchard-fishery. The chief exports are tin, copper, pilchards, and fuel. Here orange and lemon trees yield plenty of fruit on open garden-walls. Falmouth has arisen since 1613, and was incorporated in 1661; once it was a stronghold of Quakerism. See works by C. J. (Truro, 1876) and Caroline Fox (1882).