Fernando Noronha

Fernando Noronha (Noron'ya), a Brazilian volcanic island in the Atlantic, in 3° 50' S. lat., and 32° 25' W. long. Measuring 5 1/2 by \\ miles, it is cultivated by 2000 Brazilian convicts.

Fernando Po

Fernando Po, an island on the west coast of Africa, in the Bight of Biafra, and in 2° 39' N. lat. Area, 739 sq. m. Its northern half is almost entirely occupied by the volcanic peak (9300 feet) known to the English as Mount Clarence, to the Spaniards as Pico Santa Isabel. The island is covered with luxuriant vegetation. The average annual temperature at Santa Isabel, the capital (pop. 1500), is 78° F. The island is inhabited by 25,000 Bubis, a Bantu tribe, and some negroes. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1472, the island has belonged successively to Spain (1777-1827), England, and Spain (since 1841).

Ferney

Ferney, a village of 1104 inhabitants, in the French dep. of Ain, 4 1/2 miles NW. of Geneva, and 2 miles W. of the lake. Here Voltaire spent the last twenty years of his life.

Ferniehirst

Ferniehirst, a castle on Jed Water, Roxburgh, shire, 2 miles S. of Jedburgh.

Fernilee

Fernilee. See Fairnilee.

Fern Isles

Fern Isles. See Farne.

Ferns

Ferns, a Wexford village, on the Bann, 7 miles N. of Enniscorthy. Pop. 490.

Ferozatoad

Ferozatoad, etc. See Firozabad, etc.

Ferrandina

Ferrandina (Ferrandee'na), a town of Italy, 43 miles ESE. of Potenza by rail. Pop. 7325.

Ferrara

Ferrara (Ferrah'ra), capital of the Italian province of the same name, in the marshy delta of the Po, 30 miles from the Adriatic, and 29 NB. of Bologna by rail. First made a walled city in G04, it still is fortified with walls, bastions, ditches, and a citadel. It has a cathedral, a small university (1264), and the old ducal palace of the Estes, built in the Gothic style in the 14th and 15th centuries. Under the patronage of the Dukes of Este, Ferrara produced a good school of painters ; in literature it is closely associated with Tasso, Ariosto, and Guarini, who, as well as Savonarola, was born at Ferrara. At the height of its prosperity, Ferrara had 100,000 inhabitants. It was subject to the House of Este from the close of the 12th century until 1598, when it passed to Pope Clement VIII. In 1860 it was incorporated in the kingdom of Italy. Pop. 40,695.

Ferro

Ferro, or Hierro, the most westerly of the Canary Islands (q.v.), was selected as a first meridian by a scientific congress called together at Paris by Richelieu in 1630.

Ferrol

Ferrol, a Spanish seaport in Galicia, stands on a narrow arm of the sea, 11 miles by water and 33 by rail NE. of Corunna. A poor fishing-town until 1752, it is now one of the strongest fortified places in the kingdom, its large arsenal comprising dockyards, naval workshops, etc. The harbour is safe and capacious, and has a very narrow entrance, defended by two forts. The town manufactures naval stores, linen, cotton, and leather. In 1805 a French fleet was defeated by the English off Ferrol, which was taken by the French in 1809 and 1823, and in 1872 was the scene of a republican rising. Pop. 25,000.