Fife, a peninsular Scottish county, washed by the Firth of Tay, the German Ocean, and the Firth of Forth. Its extreme length is 42 miles, its extreme breadth 21, and its area 513 sq. m. The surface offers a succession of cultivated vales and hills, the most prominent eminences being the East and West Lomonds (1471 and 1713 feet), Largo Law (965), and Burntisland Bin (632). Almost the only streams are the Eden (30 miles long) and the Leven (16); whilst of seven lakelets the chief are Kilconquhar Loch (4 by 3 furlongs) and Lindores Loch (7 by 3). Coal is largely mined, besides shale, ironstone, limestone, and freestone. The soil is some of it very fertile, especially in the Howe of Fife, or Stratheden ; and whilst barely one-fourth of the whole of Scotland is in cultivation, in Fife the proportion is nearly three-fourths. Many towns and fishing-villages skirt its shores - Culross, Inverkeithing, Burntisland, Kinghorn, Kirkcaldy, Dysart, Leven, Largo, Elie, St Monans, Pittenweem, the An-struthers, Kilrenny, Crail, St Andrews, Ferry-port, Newport, and Newburgh. Inland lie Cupar, Dunfermline, Falkland, Lochgelly, etc. Under those towns, as also under Balcarres, Balmerino, Cults, Leuchars, Lindores, and Magus Muir, are noticed the manufactures, the chief antiquities, the illustrious natives, and the outstanding points in the peaceful history of the ' Kingdom of Fife.' Fife returns two members to parliament. Pop. (1801) 93,743 ; (1841) 140,140 ; (1901) 218,840. See works by Sibbald (1710), Wood (1862), Ae. Mackay ' (1890), Geddie (1894), and A. H. Millar (1895).