Gairney Bridge, a place 1 3/4 mile SSE. of Kinross, where the first Secession presbytery met in 1733. An obelisk marks it.
Galacz. See Galatz.
Galapa'gos (Span. Galapagos, 'tortoises'), a group of volcanic islands, lying on the equator, 600 miles W. of Ecuador, to which they belong. The islands all possess English names - probably bestowed by the buccaneers. The group consists of seven principal islands, with about half-a-dozen of lesser size, and innumerable islets and rocks ; the area is estimated at 2940 sq. m., of which Albemarle Island embraces over half. Rising to a height of nearly 5000 feet, the islands are covered with a dense vegetation on the south side; on the northern they are barren and forbidding in aspect, the lower parts covered entirely with ashes and lava or with prickly scrub. Darwin puts the number of craters in the group at 2000 ; some appear to be not yet extinct. The archipelago was annexed by Ecuador in 1832. Charles Island and Chatham Island are now occupied by agricultural colonists, the chief crop being sugar. Pop. 400.
Galashiels, a town of Selkirkshire, the chief seat in Scotland of the Scotch tweed manufacture, occupies 2 1/2 miles of the narrow valley of the Gala, immediately above its junction with the Tweed. It is 33 1/2 miles SSE. of Edinburgh, and 4 WNW. of Melrose. In the 15th century it is spoken of as 'the forest-steading of Galashiels;' and its tower, demolished about 1814, was then occupied by the Douglases. In 1599 it was made a burgh of barony, having then 400 inhabitants. As early as 1581 cloth was manufactured here, but so great has been the progress of the tweeds trade of the town during the 19th century, that the annual value of its woollen manufactures rose from £1000 in 1790 to £1,250,000 in 1S90. The town has also dye-works, iron-foundries, engineering works, and boot-factories. In 1S68 Galashiels was made a parliamentary burgh, with Hawick and Selkirk returning one member. Pop. (1831) 2209 : (1871) 10,312 ; (1891) 17,367 ; (1901) 13,615.
Galata, a suburb of Constantinople (q.v.).
Galatia, in ancient geography, a country in the heart of Asia Minor.
Galatz, a river-port of Moldavia, the commercial centre of the Roumanian kingdom, on the Danube's left bank, 85 miles from its Sulina mouth, and 166 by rail NE. of Bucharest. It has a dockyard, grain-stores, and manufactures of iron, copper, wax candles, and soap. Pop. (1869) 36,000; (1900)62,850.
Gala Water, a Scottish stream rising among the Moorfoot Hills, and winding 21 miles SSE., past Stow and Galashiels, till, after a total descent of 800 feet, it falls into the Tweed, a little below Abbotsford, and 2 1/3 miles W. of Melrose. In its valley, the ancient Wedale, Skene localises one of Arthur's battles; its ' braw, braw lads' are famous in song.