Galway, a maritime county of Ireland, in the province of Connaught, and, after Cork, the largest of all the Irish counties. Area, 1,569,505 acres, of which a little more than one-half is arable. Pop. (1831) 414,684 ; (1871) 248,458 ; (1881) 241,662 ; (1901) 192,549 (187,220 Catholics). It is watered in the east by the Shannon, the Suck, and their feeders; and in the west by Loughs Mask and Corrib, and by the streams which fall into them and Galway Bay. In the south are the Slieve-Baughta Mountains; and in the west are the Maam-Turk Mountains, and the Twelve Pins (2395 feet). South-west from Lough Corrib to the sea is the district called Connemara, which contains vast bogs, moors, lakes, and morasses. North-east of Connemara is Joyce's Country, and south-east of it is Iar-Connaught, or Western Connaught. The shore is much broken, with many islands and bays. Agriculture and fishing are the chief pursuits. Raths and cromlechs are numerous ; there are seven round towers ; whilst of many monastic ruins the finest is that of Knockmoy, near Tuam. Since 1885 Galway county has returned four members to parliament.
Galway Bay is an inlet of the Atlantic, on the west coast of Ireland, between the counties of Galway and Clare. It is a noble sheet of water, 30 miles long from W. to E., and 10 in average breadth, and is sheltered by the Aran Isles.
Galway, a municipal and parliamentary borough of Ireland, a seaport, and county of itself, at the mouth of the Corrib, on the north shore of Galway Bay, 50 miles NNW. of Limerick, and 127 W. of Dublin by rail. The old town is poorly built and irregular. In the wall of a house here is the 'Lynch Stone,' where in 1493 ' Mayor Lynch' had his own son hanged for the murder of a Spaniard. The new town consists of well-planned streets, and is built on a rising-ground which slopes gradually toward the sea and the river. A suburb, called Claddagh, is inhabited by fishermen. Galway is the see of a Catholic bishop. The principal buildings are the cruciform church (Episcopal) of St Nicholas (1320), St Augustine's Catholic Church (1859), the county court-house, etc. Queen's College (1849) has eighteen professors and about a hundred students; its quadrangular buildings are spacious and handsome. Galway has flour-mills, a distillery, a foundry, extensive salmon and sea fishing, a good harbour, with docks that admit vessels of 500 tons, and a lighthouse. The exports consist mainly of agricultural produce, wool, and black marble. Galway returns one member to parliament. Pop. (1851) 20,686 ; (1881) 15,471; (1901) 13,426 (nine-tenths Catholics). Galway was taken by Richard de Burgh in 1232, by Sir Charles Coote in 1652, and in 1691 by General Ginckell. See Hardiman's History of the Town and County of Galway (Dublin, 1820), Gambia, a river of western Africa, the more southerly of the two great streams of Senegambia, enters the Atlantic after a course of over 1400 miles, by an estuary which in some parts measures nearly 27 miles across, but contracts to little more than 2 at the mouth. It is navigable from June to November for vessels of 150 tons up to Barraconda, 400 miles from the sea. - The British settlement of Gambia occupies the banks of the river as far up as Georgetown. Its actual area is about 69 sq. m.; but an additional protected area, consisting of a strip on both sides of the river, was added in 1890, making, after concessions to the French in 1904, a total area of over 3000 sq. m. Pop. of settlements, 14,000 (some 200 Europeans); with protectorate, 90,000. The climate is 'fairly healthy during the dry months.' The staple product is the ground-nut; other products being hides, rice, cotton, beeswax, kola nuts, and india-rubber, and there is an active entrepot trade with the neighbouring French settlements in cotton goods, spirits, rice, kola nuts, and hardware. Formerly a dependency of Sierra Leone, the settlement was created an independent colony in 1843, a portion of the West African Settlements in 1876, and a separate government in 1888. It is now practically shut in by French territory. The settlement is connected with Europe by telegraph cables, and the Liverpool mail-steamers call fortnightly. In February 1894 a small British expedition to punish a slave-raiding Mandingo chief received a check, an event which led to decisive measures.