Gateshead, a town on the northern verge of the county of Durham, and on the south bank of the Tyne, opposite Newcastle. Governed for centuries by a chief bailiff appointed by the prince-bishop of the palatinate, aided by popularly elected burgesses, Gateshead became a parliamentary borough (sending one member) in 1832, a municipal borough in 1835, and a county borough in 1888. Pop. (1831) 15,177; (1851) 25,568 ; (1881) 65,855; and (1901) 109,888. The two towns are intimately connected by a splendid suspension bridge (1871) at Redheugh; by Stephenson's celebrated high-level road and railway bridge (1849); and by a swing-bridge (1876), which opens to allow the passage of ships. Engine-works, shipyards, electric cable, hempen and wire rope manufactories, chemical works, cement-works, glass-works, and ironworks employ many of the inhabitants. The town-hall and free library are among the architectural ornaments of the borough, which also has a grammar-school (1700), King James's Hospital (1611) for poor brethren, a public park at Salt-well (1874), public libraries (1886), high schools, swimming-baths, etc. St Mary's Church in 1080 was the scene of the murder of Bishop Walcher; and at Gateshead Defoe wrote Robinson Crusoe. The quarries yielding the world-famous Newcastle grindstones are worked at Gateshead Fell. See Welford's History of Newcastle and Gateshead (2 vols. 1884-85).