Gatschina, Gatshina. See Gatchina.


Gattonside, a Tweedside village, opposite Melrose, famous for its fruit.


Gauhati. See Assam.


Gaul. See France.


Gaur, or Lakhnauti, the mediAeval capital of Bengal, whose ruins still cover a space of seven miles by two, on a branch of the Ganges, and include Hindu buildings and interesting 15th-century mosques, besides extensive reservoirs, channels, and embanked roads.


Gaya, a town of Bengal, on the Phalgu, 57 miles S. of Patna by rail. It is a place of the greatest sanctity, from its associations with Buddha, and is annually visited by 100,000 Hindu pilgrims. Pop. 72,350.


Gaya, the wine suburb of Oporto (q.v.).


Gaza, one of the five chief cities of the ancient Philistines, situated in the south-west of Palestine, 3 miles from the sea, on the borders of the desert which separates Palestine from Egypt. In 333 b.c. it was taken after a five months' siege by Alexander the Great, and from then to 1799, when the French captured it, it witnessed the victories of the Maccabees, Calif Abu-bekr, the Templars, and the heroic Saladin. Constantino the Great, who rebuilt the town, made it the seat of a bishop. The modern Guzzeh is a collection of mere villages, its only building of interest the great mosque. Pop. 25,000.


Gebweiler (Fr. Guebwiller), a town of Alsace-Lorraine, at the foot of the Vosges, 15 miles SSW. of Colmar, has cotton-spinning, dyeworks, machine-factories, and vineyards. Pop. 13,395.


Gedrosia. See Beluchistan.


Geestemunde, a Prussian seaport, at the Geeste's confluence with the Weser, just SE. of Bremerhaven. Its docks and wharves were constructed in 1857-63. Pop. 20,120.


Gefle, a town of Sweden, on an inlet of the Gulf of Bothnia, 71 miles by rail N. by W. of Upsala. Rebuilt since its destruction by fire in 1869, it has a castle (16th and 18th c), shipbuilding yards, and manufactures of sailcloth, cotton, and tobacco, and fisheries. It ranks third among Sweden's commercial towns, exporting iron, timber, and tar, and importing corn and salt. Pop. (1874) 16,787 ; (1900) 29,522.


Gelderland. See Guelderland.


Gellivara, a great Swedish iron-mining centre, 145 miles by rail NW. of Lulea, at the head of the Gulf of Bothnia. Pop. 13,000.


Gelnhausen, a town of Prussia, on a hill, 26 miles NE. of Frankfort-on-Main. Pop. 5000.


Gelsenkirchen (g hard), a modern manufacturing town of Westphalia, 4 miles NW. of Bochum. It owes to coal and iron its rise from a mere village since 1860. Pop. (1880) 14,615 ; (1900) 36,935.

Gemml Pass

Gemml Pass (g hard), a narrow Alpine path, nearly 2 miles long and 7553 feet high, connecting the Swiss cantons of Bern and Valois.


Genazza'no, a town 27 miles E. of Rome, containing an old castle of the Colonnas, and a far-famed pilgrimage-chapel. Pop. 4008.