Genoa (Ital. Genova, Fr. Genes, anc. Genua), a city of Italy, situated on the Mediterranean gulf of the same name, at the foot of the Apennines, is the capital of a province and the most important seaport. By rail it is 801 miles SE. of Paris, 171 NE. of Marseilles, and 93 SSW. of Milan. Pop. (1900) 237,490. The slopes of the hills behind the city down to the shore are covered with buildings, terraced gardens, and orange and pomegranate groves; while the bleak summits of the loftier ranges rising still farther back are capped with strong forts, batteries, and outworks. The fine semicircular harbour, with a diameter of rather less than a mile, is protected seawards from the south and south-east winds by two piers. In front of this inner harbour another one has been made by the construction of two outer moles. In 1889 graving-docks and other works were completed. On the north side of the port is a naval harbour and a marine arsenal; and on the east side the warehouses of the former (until 1867) free port. Genoa is the commercial outlet for a wide extent of country, of which the chief exports are rice, wine, olive-oil, silk goods, coral, paper, macaroni, and marble. The imports are principally raw cotton, wheat, sugar, coal, hides, coffee, raw wool, fish, petroleum, iron, machinery, and cotton and woollen textiles. The annual exports (by sea) of Genoa are valued at nearly £4,000,000, while the imports are returned at more than £15,000,000. About 5800 vessels, of 2,970,000 tons burden, enter annually, and about 5750 of 2,979,000 tons clear. The principal industrial establishments of the city embrace ironworks, cotton and cloth mills, macaroni-works, tanneries, sugar-refineries, and vesta match, filigree, and paper factories. Genoa benefited greatly by the opening of the St Gothard Railway. From 70,000 to 200,000 emigrants sail every year from Genoa for South America.
While strikingly grand as viewed from the sea, and so far worthy of being entitled Genova la Superba, Genoa is in reality built awkwardly on irregular rising ground, and consists of a labyrinth of narrow and intricate lanes. Of the palaces the most famous are the former palace of the doges, now the meeting-place of the senate; and the Doria, presented in 1529 to the great Genoese citizen Andrea Doria. Foremost amongst the churches stands the cathedral, a grand 12th-century pile in the Italian Gothic style. The marble municipal palace and the palace of the Dogana must also be mentioned. The university (with nearly 1000 students), originally built in 1623, reorganised in 1812, has a library of 116,000 volumes. To Columbus, Genoa's most famous son, there is a fine monument (1862) by Lanzio. A great mediaeval republic, the rival of Pisa and Venice, Genoa in 1768 ceded Corsica to France, and in 1802 was made a French dep., in 1815 a province of Piedmont. See works by Bent (1880) and W. W. Johnson (1892).
Genoa, Gulf of, a large indentation in the northern shore of the Mediterranean, north of Corsica, has between the towns of Oneglia on the west and Spezia on the east a width of nearly 90 miles, with a depth of about 30 miles.