German Ocean

German Ocean. See North Sea.

Germantown

Germantown, a former borough of Pennsylvania, included since 1854 in the limits of Philadelphia. Here an attack by Washington on the British camp, 4th October 1777, was repulsed.

Germersheim

Germersheim (Ger'mers-him; g hard), a town of the Bavarian Palatinate, on the Rhine's left bank, 8 miles SSW. of Spires. Pop. 6132.

Gerona

Gero'na, the capital of a Spanish province, 65 miles by rail NE. of Barcelona, with a fine Gothic cathedral and some manufactures. Pop. 16,000.

Gers

Gers (Zhar), a dep. of SW. France, separated by Landes from the Bay of Biscay. Area, 2415 sq. m.; pop. (1861) 298,931 ; (1901) 238,448.

Gersau

Gersau (g hard), a village in the Swiss canton of Schwyz, on the Lake of Lucerne, and near the foot of the Rigi. Pop. 1871.

Gersoppa

Gersoppa, a village of South India which gives name to the great falls of the Sharawati River, 960 feet high, 30 miles SE. of Honawar.

Gethsemane

Gethse'mane (Heb. gath, 'a wine-press,' and shemen, 'oil') was a small farm or estate at the foot of Mount Olivet, somewhere on the east slope of the Kedron valley, and rather more than 1/2 mile from Jerusalem.

Gettysburg

Gettysburg (g hard), in Pennsylvania, 50 miles by rail SSW. of Harrisbnrg, with a Lutheran college (1832) and seminary. Pop. 3500. Here in 1863 (July 2-3) Meade defeated Lee.

Gex

Gex, once capital of the Pays de Gex in Savoy, now a town of 2500 inhabitants in the French department of Ain, is 12 miles NW. of Geneva, on the slopes of the Jura.

Geyser Springs

Geyser Springs, a number of boiling springs (not real geysers) in the Devil's Canon, in California, 90 miles NW. of San Francisco and 2000 feet above the sea.

Ghadames

Ghadames. See Gadames.

Ghats

Ghats, or Ghauts ('gates, passes, or landing-stairs'), Eastern and Western, two converging ranges of mountains, which run parallel with the east and west coasts of southern India, and meet at an angle near Cape Comorin. (1) The Eastern Ghats commence a little north of the Mahanadi, and run through Madras, with an average height of 1500 feet, for the most part at a distance of from 50 to 150 miles from the coast. (2) The Western Ghats stretch from the valley of the Tapti to their junction with the kindred ridge, and on to Cape Comorin itself. Their elevation varies from 3000 feet to 8760 in the peak of Dodabetta, in the Nilgiri hills.

Ghaziabad

Ghaziabad, a town and important railway Junction in the United Provinces of India, 23 miles SW. of Meerut. Pop. 12,000.

Ghazipur

Ghazipur, a city in the United Provinces of India, on the left bank of the Ganges, 44 miles NE. of Benares. It has the ruins of the Palace of Forty Pillars, a marble statue by Flaxman to Lord Cornwallis, who died here in 1805, and manufactures of opium. Pop. 35,000.

Ghazni

Ghazni (also Ghizni and Ghuznee), a fortified town of Afghanistan, stands 7729 feet above sea-level, and 84 miles SW. of Kabul, on the road to Kandahar and at the head of the Gomal route to India. From the 10th to the 12th century it was the capital of the Ghaznevid empire ; and was captured by the Mongols, and in 1738 by Nadir Shah of Persia. It was taken by Lord Keane in 1839, and in 1842 by General Nutt. The celebrated gates of Somnath were kept at Ghazni from 1024 to 1842. Pop. 10,000.