Glamorganshire (Welsh Gwlad Morgan), the most southerly county of Wales, bounded S. and SW. by the Bristol Channel. Area, 855 sq. m.; pop. (1801) 70,879 ; (1841) 171,188 ; (1881) 511,433 ; (1901) 860,022. This unexampled increase is due to the development of the mineral industries. In the west of the county the coast is indented by Swansea Bay, from which it projects westward into the peninsula of Gower. The northern district is covered with rugged hills, the highest of which, however, Llangeinor, is only 1859 feet in height. Here is one of the richest coalfields in the kingdom. The southern portion of the county consists of a series of fertile valleys, richly wooded and with a mild climate, the finest being the Vale of Glamorgan, the ' garden of Wales.' The chief rivers - the Rhymney, Taff, Neath, Tawe, and Llwchwr - flow southward into the Bristol Channel. Besides coal, anthracite or stone-coal, coking-coal, ironstone, and limestone are found. At Merthyr-Tydvil and Dowlais are large ironworks ; at Swansea, Neath, Aberavon, large copper-smelting works. Tin and lead are also smelted in the county. The county sends five members to parliament; the represented boroughs are Merthyr-Tydvil (with two), Swansea (two), and the Cardiff boroughs (one). Oystermouth Castle, Caerphilly Castle, and Castle Coch are fine ruins ; Cardiff Castle is a stately restored edifice. See Thomas Nicholas, History of Glamorganshire (1874).