Goa, a Portuguese possession on the west coast of India, 250 miles SSE. of Bombay, with an area of 1469 sq. m., and a population of 475,500. A hilly country, bounded on the east by the Western Ghats, the territory is watered by numerous rivers. Half the land under cultivation, which embraces a third of the entire area, is devoted to rice ; stately forests cover nearly a fourth of the remainder. Captured by Albuquerque in 1510, 'Golden Goa' reached by the end of the century a high pitch of military and ecclesiastical splendour and commercial prosperity. The decline of the Portuguese power quickly followed the appearance of the Dutch, and in 1759 the city of Old Goa, once the chief emporium of trade between the east and west, was deserted by all but its ecclesiastical inhabitants, and left to the decay in which it has since lain. Its former pop. of 200,000 has sunk to less than 1900 ; its arsenal, its palaces, its quays, even many of its churches are in ruins, their sites covered with cocoa-nut plantations, and the streets overrun with grass. Among the edifices that survive are the majestic archiepiscopal cathedral, and the splendid church of Bom Jesus, containing the magnificent tomb of St Francis Xavier. - The new capital is Nova Goa or Panjim, nearer the sea, on the Mandavi, 3 miles from its mouth. It presents a picturesque appearance ; its streets are wide and clean ; and new harbour and railway works were inaugurated on 31st October 1882. The public buildings include the viceregal palace and spacious barracks, one wing of which accommodates the national lyceum, the public library, and a college for practical sciences. Pop. 8440. See works by Fonseca (1878) and Lady Burton (1879).