Gradlsca, a town of Austria, on the Isonzo, 25 miles NW. of Trieste, which came to Austria in 1511, and in 1754 was united to Gorz (q.v.). Pop. 4000.


Graemsay, an Orkney island, 1/2 mile S. of Stromness, measuring l 1/2 by 1 mile. Pop. 195.


Grafenberg, a village in the north-west corner of Austrian Silesia, 50 miles N. of Olmutz. The spot where the water-cure was introduced in 1826 by Vincenz Priessnitz (1799-1851), it still is visited yearly by some 1500 persons.


Grafrath (Grefrat), a town of Rhenish Prussia, 12 miles E. by S. of Dusseldorf. Pop. 6299.


Grafton, (1) a town of New South Wales, 350 miles NE. of Sydney, on the navigable Clarence River, 45 miles from the sea. The rich agricultural land in the neighbourhood yields sugar, tobacco, etc, and gold, silver, coal, and copper are also found. Pop. 4160. - (2) A town of Massachusetts, 9 miles SE. of Worcester. Pop. 4889.


Gragnano (Gran-ya'no), a town of Italy, 20 miles by rail SE. of Naples. Pop. 14,100.

Grahams Land

Graham's Land, an island of the Antarctic Ocean, discovered by Biscoe in 1832, lies between 65° and 67° S. lat. In front, towards the north, are a number of islets, called Biscoe's Chain.


Grahamston. See Falkirk.


Grahamstown, the capital of the eastern province of Cape Colony, stands near the centre of the maritime division of Albany, 1728 feet above sea-level. By rail it is 106 miles NE. of Port Elizabeth, and 43 NW. of Port Alfred. It is the seat of two bishops - Anglican and Roman Catholic; and in its Anglican cathedral is a monument to Colonel Graham, after whom the city was named in 1812. Leather is manufactured, and among the institutions are the museum, St Andrew's College, public library, hospital, and barracks. The population (one-third of it coloured natives) is about 15,000.


Grahamstown, New Zealand. See Thames.

Graian Alps

Graian Alps. See Alps.


Grammichele (Gram-mi-ka'le), a town of Sicily, 33 miles SW. of Catania, on a mountain-ridge, 1768 feet above sea-level. Pop. 15,804.


Grammont (Fr.; Belg. Geeraerdsbergen), a small town in the Belgian province of East Flanders, on the Dender, 14 miles by rail S. by E. of Ghent. Pop. 12,000.


Grampians, a name very loosely applied to the mountain-system of the Scottish Highlands. Some, for instance, restrict it to a 'chain' of heights bordering the Lowland plain from Dumbarton to Stonehaven, whilst others include a ' range' extending from Stonehaven to Ben Nevis, as well as the Cairngorm group, Schiehallion, etc. Hector Boece adopted the name in 1527 from Tacitus's Mons Grampius or Graupius, the scene in 86 a.d. of Agricola's crushing defeat of Gal-gacus. Where that battle was fought has itself been hotly contested. Ardoch, Dalginross, near Comrie, and Urie, near Stonehaven, are among the sites named, but Dr Skene prefers the peninsula formed by the Isla's junction with the Tay. - Grampians is also the name of a range of Australian mountains, rising to 5600 feet, in the west of Victoria (q.v.).