Grasse, a town in the French dep. of Alpes-Maritimes, on the southern slope of the Basses-Alpes, 1066 feet above sea-level, and 12 miles N. of Cannes by rail. The seat of a bishopric from 1244 to 1801, it has steep, narrow, crooked streets, a cathedral, and an interesting hotel-de-ville. Grasse is second only to Paris in its manufactures of perfumes, made from the roses, orange-flowers, heliotropes, mint, etc. grown here. It also manufactures olive-oil, silk, etc, and is growing in favour as a winter-resort. Queen Victoria stayed here in 1891. Pop. 13,960.


Gratz, or Graz (formerly Grdtz), the capital of Styria, in Austria, 141 miles SSW. of Vienna by rail, is a picturesque old town on both sides of the Mur, encircled by fine gardens. Remains of the former fortress still stand on a hill in the centre of the town. Old buildings are the cathedral (1462), two other Gothic churches (one built in 1283), the ancient castle of the Styrian dukes, the Landhaus, the university (with over 1200 students, and a library of 120,000 volumes), etc. The industries include the manufacture of machines, steel goods, rails and railway carriages, sugar, wine, perfumery, stearine candles, soap, etc. Pop. 140,000.


Graubunden. See Grisons.


Graudenz (Grou-dentz'), an old town in the province of West Prussia, on the Vistula, 37 miles N. of Thorn. It has iron-foundries, breweries, and tapestry and cigar manufactories. Pop. (1875) 14,553 ; (1900) 32,800. About a mile north of it on a hill (282 feet) is the fortress of Graudenz (1776), since 1874 a barrack and military prison.


Gravelines (Grav-leen'), a fortified town in the French dep. of Nord, in a marshy locality at the mouth of the Aa, 13 miles by rail ENE. of Calais. A desolate-looking place now, with grass-grown streets, it has an historic past, as the scene of Egmont's victory over the French (1558), and the place off which the English dispersed the Armada (1588). Pop. 5900.


Gravelotte, a village of Lorraine, 7 miles W. of Metz. Here, on 18th August 1870, Bazaine was severely defeated by the Germans.


Gravina, a town of southern Italy, 33 miles SW. ofBari. Pop. 15,612.


Gray, a town in the French dep. of Haute-Saone, on the Saone, 25 miles NW. of Besancon. It has a ruined castle of the dukes of Burgundy. Pop. 5759.

Grays Thurrock

Grays Thurrock, a town of Essex, on the Thames, 19 1/2 miles E. by S. of London. Pop. of urban district, 13,834.


Graz. See Gratz.


Grazalema, a town of Spain, 53 miles ENE. of Cadiz. Pop. 8000.

Great Basin

Great Basin. See Great Salt Lake.

Great Bear Lake

Great Bear Lake. See Bear Lake (Great).

Great Fish River

Great Fish River, (1) in Cape Colony, rises in the Sneeuwberg Mountains, and flows 230 miles SE. to the Indian Ocean in 33° 25' S. lat. and 27° E. long. - (2) Or Back's River, in North America, is over 440 miles long, and enters an inlet of the Arctic Ocean in 95° W. long., after passing through Lake Pelly. Sir George Back in 1834-35 traced its course to the ocean.