Great Salt Lake, in Utah, stretches along the western base of the Wahsatch Mountains, about 4200 feet above the sea, forming a principal drainage centre of the vast plateau known as the Great Basin, 800 miles long by 500 broad, in Utah, Nevada, Oregon, California, and Idaho. Well-marked shore-lines on the mountains around, reaching 1000 feet higher than the present level, show that the lake had formerly a vastly greater extent. Great Salt Lake is over 80 miles long and from 20 to 32 broad, but for the most part exceedingly shallow. It contains several islands, the largest, Antelope Island, about 18 miles long. Its tributaries are the Bear, Ogden, Jordan, and Weber, the Jordan bringing the fresh waters of Lake Utah; but Great Salt Lake has no outlet save. evaporation, and its clear water consequently holds a large quantity of saline matter In solu-tion, which has varied from 22.4 per cent. (in 1850, when the lake had an area of 1700 sq. m.) to 18.4 (in 1869, when the area had increased to 2360 sq. m.). Of late, the lake has been shrinking again. Several species of insects and a brine-shrimp have been found in its waters, but no fishes; large flocks of water-fowls frequent the shores. The Great Salt Lake was first explored in 1843 by Fremont, and surveyed in 1849-50 by Stansbury. See Salt Lake City, and Utah.
Great Slave Lake lies in the Canadian Northwest Territory (62° N. lat.). Its greatest length is about 300 miles, and its greatest breadth 50 miles. By the Slave River it receives the surplus waters of Lake Athabasca (q. v.); and it discharges by the Mackenzie River into the Arctic Ocean.
Greece is the easternmost of the three peninsulas projected southwards by Europe into the Mediterranean. The mountain-range which cuts off the peninsula from the continent of Europe is an extension of the Balkans. From it run chains from north-north-west to south-south-east, which form the skeleton of Greece. The western boundary of Thessaly is formed by Pindus (7111 feet), the main offshoot of the Balkans. The eastern boundary is also marked not only by the sea, but by important mountains derived from the Balkan system. These are Olympus (9750 feet), Ossa, Mavrovuni, and Pelion (5310). Othrys, a branch of Pindus, forms the south boundary of Thessaly. This branch is continued in the celebrated mountains Parnassus (8036 feet) and Helicon, forms the land of Attica, and reappears as the islands of Ceos, Cythnos, Seriphos, and Siph-nos. The Peloponnese, 'the island of Pelops,' or by its modern name the Morea, is connected with northern Greece merely by the narrow isthmus of Corinth (q.v.), now pierced by a canal; its highest point is Taygetus (Hagios Elias, 7901 feet). The rivers of Greece are unimportant.
The ancient Greeks were a branch of that family which includes most European peoples, and also the Persians and the Hindus, and is variously called Indo-Germanic, Indo-European, and Aryan. Successive waves of Aryan tribes entering from the north drove emigrants on to and over the isles of Greece to plant Greek cities and Greek culture on the coasts of Asia Minor. At later times Sicily, the Black Sea, Libya, etc. were dotted with Greek colonies ; and wherever Greeks were, there, to the Greek mind, was ' Hellas,' which is thus an ethnological rather than a territorial term. The Greeks called themselves Hellenes, and the inhabitants of Italy called them Grœci. The modern Greeks are by no means pure-bred descendants of the ancient Greeks. Indeed, it has been maintained by Fallmerayer that from the 7th century a.d. there have been no pure Greeks in the country, but only Slavs. It is, however, pretty certain that the 2 1/4 million of modern inhabitants are descendants of the three races that occupied the soil at the time of the Roman Conquest - viz. Greeks, Thracians (mod. Wallachians), and Illyrians (Albanians). Greek, ancient and modern, is a typical Aryan speech.
In 1879 the area was 19,810 sq. m., with a pop. of 1,679,775; the Thessalo-Epirot districts incorporated with the kingdom in 1881 (as an outcome of the Berlin Treaty) added to this the remainder, with a pop. of 299,677, making a total of 25,020 sq. m. and a pop. of 1,979,452. In 1903 the pop. was 2,645,175. Besides the Greeks of the kingdom, the Greeks in various parts of the Ottoman empire - notably in Constantinople, Macedonia, the western parts of Asia Minor, Crete, Cyprus, and the smaller islands - number above 6,000,000. Athens, the capital, has now a population of 115,000; the towns next in size being Patras, PirAeus, and Trikhala, all above 20,000; and there are eight others between 20,000 and 10,000. Greece, although one-half of its area is pasture-land or waste, is mainly an agricultural country; the land is mostly in the hands of peasant-proprietors, and the implements of husbandry are of the most primitive type. Besides cereals, fruits, sugar, tobacco, cotton, and dyestuffs are raised. The chief articles of export are currants (about half of the total), lead and other ores, olive-oil, wine, honey, sponges, etc. The principal imports are cereals and textile goods. The imports have an annual value of from £4,000,000 to £5,500,000; the exports from £3,000,000 to £4,250,000. The exports to Britain average about 1 3/4 million, and the imports from Britain l 1/2 million annually. The herding of sheep (3,000,000) occupies about 9 per cent. of the people; the sponge and coral fisheries employ more than 900 boats. The minerals of Greece include lignite, argentiferous lead, zinc, magnetic iron, and marble. There are some 1200 flour-mills worked by water and wind, and about 100 by steam; over 200 distilleries; and numerous dyeworks, tanneries, and manufactures of machinery, cotton and silk goods, etc. About 700 miles of railway are open, and others are in course of construction ; and there are nearly 4400 miles of telegraph lines.
The legislative power is vested in a single chamber of representatives, the Boule, which consists of about 235 paid representatives, elected under the ballot by universal suffrage for a period of four years. Greece is divided for administrative purposes into twenty-six nomarchies or departments, which are again subdivided into 69 districts and 450 communes. The revenue averages from £4,000,000 to £4,750,000, and the expenditure nearly balances. The total debt amounts to £33,000,000, without the last war indemnity. Fully a third of the expenditure is absorbed by the interest on the debt, and a fifth by the ministries of war and marine. The Greek Orthodox Church is established by law, and to it the great mass of the people belong; but there are some 25,000 Mohammedans in Thessaly and Epirus. There are more than 160 monasteries and nunneries, with over 2600 monks and some 500 nuns. Elementary education is compulsory for children between the ages of five and twelve; but the law is not carefully enforced outside the towns, and the majority of the people are illiterate. In 1905 the nominal strength of the army on a peace footing was 24,076 - which in the event of war could easily be raised to 100,000; all able-bodied males are liable to service. The navy consisted of four small ironclads, sixteen gunboats, twenty-one torpedo boats and launches, and several other vessels; the officers and men number nearly 3000.
Before the dawn of history, we have traces of the encroachments on one another by various Hellenic or Greek races, tribes, or alliances - Pelasgians, Aetolians, Ionians, Boeotians, and Achaians being amongst them. The first really historical fact is the invasion from the northward by the Dorians, who made themselves masters of the Peloponnesus about the beginning of the 12th century B.C. A consequence of this Dorian invasion was the colonisation of the islands and of the coasts of Asia Minor by Aeolians, Ionians, and later by Dorians also. The seeds of that literature, art, and philosophy, which afterwards made Greece, and specially Athens, glorious were sown and first nurtured in the colonies. By degrees Greek colonies established themselves on the shores of the Black Sea, and along both north and south coasts of the Mediterranean, Sicily was largely Hellenised, and South Italy became Magna GrAecia. Neither at home nor abroad had the Greeks the faculty of union as a nation or race; even in the fatherland there were multitudes of small states, a city with three or four miles of territory being often an independent state of itself, and frequently at war with its neighbours. Almost the only central bond of union, besides the Hellenic tongue in its various dialects, was the oracle of Apollo at Delphi. For long, two Greek states were pre-eminent. The powerful Dorian state of Sparta was reorganised about 800 b.c. by Lycurgus, the kingly institution being retained. Athens was democratic before that date, and its constitution, fixed by Solon in 594 b.c, ultimately triumphed over the tyranny of Pisistratus and his sons. Encroachments of the Persians on the Greek colonies of Asia Minor led to the invasion of Greece by the Persians in 490 b.c, an invasion gloriously repelled by the Athenians at Marathon. Xerxes was defeated at Thermopylae, Salamis (480), Platsea, and Mycale, Athenians and Spartans for a time combining their forces. Now it was that Greek literature and Greek art attained a perfection that has made the rest of the world ever since scholars and imitators of the Greeks of the Periclean period. The next period is marked by the fratricidal struggle between Athens and Sparta in the Peloponnesian war, which ended in the humiliation of Athens in 404 B.C., and the enfeeblement of all Greece. In 379-371 the Thebans asserted themselves victoriously against the Spartans; and forty years later Philip of Macedon subjected Greece to a semi-barbarous nation. Under his son, Alexander the Great, the Greek name and the Greek fame were extended into Asia and Africa by the Macedonian king's campaigns. In 197 the Romans broke the Macedonian power, and by 146 were masters of Greece, which subsequently shared the fortunes of the Roman empire. When the Roman empire was divided (395 a.d.) into the Eastern and Western empires, Greek was of course the language of the Eastern, Greek, or Byzantine half of the Roman dominion. The Byzantine emperors fell in 1453 before the Turks, under whom the Greek race reached the lowest stage of political, intellectual, commercial, and spiritual decadence, though the Greek Church survived, and the old Greek tongue, in corrupted guise, continued to be spoken. A national reawakening began in 1821; and by 1828, with the support of Britain, France, and Russia, Greece was again a free, but small and weak kingdom. The Russo-Turkish war of 1877-78 added Thessaly and part of Epirus to its area ; but the ambition of the Greeks to secure a large share of the ' sick man's' inheritance - especially Macedonia and Constantinople - is one of the causes that has led to growing embarrassment in the national finances, and to national bankruptcy in 1893.
On the land of Greece and its people, see works by Leake (1830-35), Wordsworth (1831 ; new ed. 1883), Tozer (1873), Sergeant (1879, 1880), Jebb (1880), and Rennell Rodd (1892); on the history, the works of Thirlwall, Grote, Curtius, Finlay, and Bury.