Greenock, an important seaport of Renfrewshire, the seventh largest town in Scotland, on the southern shore of the Firth of Clyde, 3| miles by water S. of Helensburgh, and 22 1/2 by rail WNW. of Glasgow. For more than four miles it stretches along the level strip of ancient sea-margin, or climbs up the slopes of the hills, which rise rapidly behind it to a height of 813 feet, and which command splendid views of the opposite coasts of Argyll and Dumbarton shires. Greenock has a reputation of being always wet, and the yearly rainfall does exceed 60 inches; but as the prevalent winds are from the south and west, they are generally mild. The west end of the town, with its elegant and commodious villas of every style of architecture, its beautiful esplanade, 1 1/2 mile long, its wide and well-paved streets, planted with trees, is particularly attractive. The public buildings, many of them very handsome, include the Renaissance town-hall (1886), with a tower 245 feet high, the county buildings (1867), the custom-house (1818), the poorhouse and lunatic asylum (1876), Wood's Mariners' Asylum (1851), and the Watt Institution (1837), containing a marble statue of Watt by Chantrey. To Sir Michael Shaw-Stewart the town is largely indebted for the Well Park (1851), the Wellington Park (1872), and the Lyle Road (1880). The new cemetery, 90 acres in extent, with its Watt cairn, and the magnificent waterworks (1827-83) also deserve mention. The harbour-works date from 1707, and have cost upwards of 1 1/2 million pounds. Accessible at all states of the tide, they include Victoria Harbour (1850), the Albert Harbour (1866), and the James Watt Dock (1886). The tonnage of vessels belonging to Greenock rose from 29,054 in 1825 to 103,919 in 1867, and 278,097 in 1893 (besides 313 fishing-boats); whilst the tonnage of vessels entering the port ranges between 1,000,000 and 1,600,000 per annum. Shipbuilding (mostly iron or steel steamers) has been carried on since 1760 ; and sugar-refining, commenced in 1765, in spite of bad recent years has still its chief seat at Greenock. There are also manufactures of steam-engines, anchors and chain-cables, ropes, sailcloth, paper, wool and worsted, etc. Since 1832 Greenock has returned a member to parliament. Pop. (1696) 1328; (1801) 17,190; (1851) 36,689; (1881) 66,704; (1901) 68,142. Created a burgh of barony in 1635, Greenock owes its growth from a mere fishing-village to the Shaw family and to the Treaty of Union (1707), by which free commerce was opened up with America and the West Indies. Besides being the birthplace of Watt, Kidd the pirate, Spence the mathematician, Principal Caird, and Hamish MacCunn, it has memories of Rob Roy, John Wilson, and Galt, and contains the grave of Burns's 'Highland Mary.' See Provost Dugald Campbell's Historical Sketches of the Town and Harbours of Greenock (2 vols. 1879-81).