Grodno, the capital of a Russian province, on the Niemeu's right bank, 148 miles by rail NE.
of Warsaw. It manufactures cloth and tobacco. Pop. 46,788. - The province has an area of 14,926 sq. m., and a pop. of 1,650,000.
Groningen (Gro'ning-en), the north-eastern province of Holland. Area, 887 sq. m.; pop. over 303,000. - The capital, Groningen, is 25 miles by rail SW. of Delfzihl, on Dollart Bay, and 34 E. of Leeuwarden. The university (1614), with new buildings of 1850, and some 360 students, possesses a library, a botanic garden, an observatory, etc. A celebrated deaf and dumb institution was founded in 1790. The manufactures include linen and woollen goods, tobacco, brushes, Dutch tiles, and boat-building. Groningen, already an important place in the 9th century, joined the Hanseatic League in 1282. Pop. (1876) 40,165; (1901) 67,570.
Grosse'to, a Tuscan town on the Ombrone, near its mouth, 160 miles SE. of Leghorn by rail, with a fine cathedral. Pop. 6962.
Grosswardein (Magyar Nagy-Varad), an old town of Hungary, on the Sabes (Rapid) Koros, 152 miles by rail SSE. of Pesth. Formerly a fortress, it is the seat of Roman Catholic and Greek bishops, and manufactures spirits, oil, vinegar, tiles, matches, pottery, and wine. Population, above 50,000. Near it is the Bishop's Bath, with alkaline sulphur-springs (104°-106° F.).
Grunberg, a town of Prussian Silesia, 34 miles NW. of Glogau by rail. Pop. 20,396.
Grutli. See Rutli.
Gruyere (Groo-yehr'), a little Swiss town, 16 miles SSW. of Freiburg, gives its name to the famous whole-milk Gruyere cheese. Pop. 1375.
Guadalajara (Guadalaha'ra), (1) the decayed capital of a Spanish province on the Henares, 35 miles NE. of Madrid by rail. Pop. 11,051. - The province occupies the northern part of New Castile, and has an area of 4660 sq. m. Pop. a little over 200,000. - (2) Capital of the Mexican state of Jalisco, and the second city of the republic, on the Rio Grande de Santiago, here crossed by a fine bridge of 26 arches, 280 miles WNW. of Mexico City by rail. It has an archiepiscopal cathedral, the government palace, a mint, university, tramways, hospitals, and school of art. It is the chief seat of the cotton and woollen manufactures of the country, and the Guadalajara pottery and metal wares, like the confectionery, have a reputation all over Mexico. Pop. 101,200.