Guadalquivir (Guadalkiveer'; Arab. Wadi-al-Kebir, ' the great river ;' anc. Bœ;tis), the chief river of Spain, rises in the Sierra de Cazorla, in the east of the province of Jaen, and flows 374 miles SW. through or along the borders of the provinces of Jaen, Cordova, Seville, Huelva, and Cadiz, to the Gulf of Cadiz at San Lucar de Barrameda. The principal towns on its banks are Cordova and Seville, to the last of which, about 80 miles above its mouth, the river is tidal and navigable for steamers. Below Seville it twice divides into two branches, forming two islands. Its chief affluents are the Guadajoz, Jenil, Guadalimar, and Guadiato. At Montoro it breaks through the outlying spurs of the central Sierra Morena in a series of rapids, but its lower course is sluggish and dreary. During the equinoctial rains the river rises sometimes 10 feet, and the country is yearly flooded as far up as Seville.
Guadalupe Hidalgo, 5 miles by tramway N. of Mexico City, is the chief Mexican place of pilgrimage, its brick cathedral having a miraculous picture of a brown Virgin. The treaty which ended the war with the United States was signed here, 2d February 1848.
Guadeloupe, the chief of the French Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, lies 77 miles N. by W. of Martinique, and contains, including dependencies, 583 sq. m., with a pop. of about 185,000, mostly blacks and mulattoes. It is divided into Grande-Terre on the east, and Basse-Terre or Guadeloupe proper on the west, by a strait of from 40 to 150 yards in width, which bears the name of Salt River. The nomenclature of the two islands appears curiously perverse, for Basse-Terre is the loftier of the two (the volcanic summit La Soufriere, 5497 feet), and Grande-Terre is the smaller. Earthquakes are frequent. The chief product is sugar; coffee also is exported. Point-a-Pitre (18,000) is the principal town and port. The dependencies are the islets of Desirade, Marie-Galante, and Les Saintes, besides St-Barthelemy and part of St-Martin to the north-west. Guadeloupe, discovered by Columbus, became finally French in 1816.
Guadiana (Arab. Wadi Ana, anc. Anas), one of the five principal rivers of the Iberian peninsula. Rising as the Zancara in the east of the plateau of La Mancha, it flows south and west to the Ojos, below which point it receives the name of the Guadiana. It bends southward at Badajoz, forms for some miles the boundary between Spain and Portugal, then flows through part of Alemtejo province, returning to form the frontier again, until it empties into the Gulf of Cadiz. It is 510 miles long, but is navigable only for 42 miles. Its chief affluents are the Jabalon, Zujar, Matachel, Ardila, and Chanza.