HAARLEM, a town of Holland, 10 miles W. of Amsterdam, is intersected, like most Dutch towns, with canals and avenues of trees. Of its churches the principal is the Great or St Bavon's, built in the 15th century, one of the largest churches in Holland, and specially noted for its lofty tower and its organ (1738). Before the church stands a statue of Laurens Coster, to whom his countrymen ascribe the invention of printing. The town-hall, formerly the residence of the Counts of Holland, has portraits by Franz Hals. The Teyler Institution promotes the study of theology, natural science, and the fine arts. Although Haarlem is no longer celebrated, as it was in the 17th century, for its commerce, it still weaves cotton, casts type, bleaches linen, and trades largely in tulips, hyacinths, etc. It underwent a seven months' siege (1572-73) from the Spaniards, in which the citizens displayed the noblest heroism. In the wood of Haarlem stands the 'pavilion' containing the colonial and industrial museums, and a collection of modern pictures. Pop. 70,000.