Hermoupolis. See Syra.
Hersfeld, an old town of Hesse-Nassau, on the navigable Fulda, 27 miles N. of Fulda by rail. Here are a fine Gothic church (1320); a ruined cathedral, destroyed by the French in 1761; and the once celebrated Benedictine abbey, founded in 769. Pop. 7871.
Herstmonceaux. See Hurstmonceaux.
Hertogenbosch. See Bois-le-Duc.
Hervey Islands. See Cook Islands.
Herzegovina. See Bosnia.
Hesse-Cassel, once a German electorate, now the district of Cassel in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau (q.v.). Area, 3700 sq. m. ; pop. nearly 900,000. The landgraviate of Hesse-Cassel was constituted an electorate in 1803, occupied by the French in 1806, incorporated with Westphalia in 1807, and reconstituted an electorate in 1813. The elector having joined Austria in 1866, Hesse-Cassel was incorporated with Prussia.
Hesse-Homburg, from 1596 to 1866 a landgraviate of Germany, consisting of Homburg vor der Hohe, on the right bank of the Rhine, and Meisenheim, on the left bank. Area, 106 sq. m.; population, 30,000. Since 1866 Hesse-Homburg has been incorporated with Prussia, the grand-duke having sided with Austria.
Hesse-Nassau, a province of Prussia, between Bavaria and Saxony on the east and the Rhine on the west, was formed (1867-68) out of parts of the former electorate of Hesse-Cassel, of the former duchy of Nassau, of the lordship of Homburg, of the larger part of the former free town of Frankfort-on-the-Main, and small parts of Bavaria. It comprises 5943 sq. m. The surface consists mostly of uplands, attaining 3096 feet in the Grosse Wasserkuppe. Among the minerals are iron, copper, lead, manganese, and building-stone. It is rich in mineral waters, such as at Wiesbaden, Ems, Kronthal, Homburg, etc. Population, now close on 2,000,000, mainly Protestants. The chief towns are Frankfort, Cassel, Wiesbaden, Hanau, Marburg, and Fulda.
Hexham, an ancient town of Northumberland, beautifully situated on the right bank of the Tyne, here spanned by a nine-arch bridge, 24 miles W. of Newcastle by rail. The noble 13th-century Abbey Church is represented only by the greater part of the choir, the transepts, and the central tower; it still retains its old ' frith-stool.' Its nave was destroyed by the Scots in 1296, and never rebuilt; but under its ruins has been discovered the Saxon crypt of St Wilfrid, who originally founded the monastery in 674 - the seat of a bishopric (681-821). The refectory remains and the abbey gateway of Norman architecture. Near Hexham the Lancastrians were defeated in 1464. Pop. 7000. See works by Wright (1823), Raine (1865), and Hodges (1888).