Hertfordshire, or Herts, an inland county of England, bounded by Cambridge, Essex, Middlesex, and Bucks, is 35 miles long from NE. to SW., 20 miles in mean breadth, and 611 sq. m. in area, of which more than one-half is under tillage, one-fourth pasture, and one-seventeenth in wood. It is divided into 8 hundreds, 2 municipal boroughs (Hertford and St Albans), and 138 parishes, and has 11 market-towns, the chief of which are Hertford (the county town), St Albans, Watford, Hitchin, Hemel Hempstead, and Bishop-Stort-ford. Pop. (1801) 97,577; (1841) 156,660; (1881) 203,140; (1901) 250,152. The surface is mostly level, except in the north, where a branch of the Chiltern Hills skirts the county, Kensworth Hill (904 feet) being the highest point. The principal rivers are the Lea, Stort, and Colne, all affluents of the Thames, and the artificial New River (q.v.): the Grand Junction Canal, too, passes through the south-western extremity of the county. Straw-plaiting is largely carried on in the north and west portions, where the land is least adapted for agriculture; near Watford and Rickmansworth are paper and silk factories, and at Great Berkhampstead extensive chemical works. Ware is the chief seat of the malting trade in the kingdom ; Cheshunt, Waltham Cross, and Bishop-Stortford are famous for their rose-gardens, and in some districts watercress is extensively cultivated for the London market. Herts is almost entirely in the diocese of St Albans and in the South-eastern Circuit, and since 1885 has returned one member to parliament for each of its four divisions - North or Hitchin, East or Hertford, Mid or St Albans, and West or Watford. Herts contains the battlefields of St Albans and Barnet; and other places of historic interest are Rye House, Kings Lang-ley, Hunsdon House, Hatfield, and Theobalds. Amongst the worthies of Herts have been Nicholas Brakespeare, afterwards Pope Adrian IV.; Francis Bacon; Richard Gough, the antiquary; the poet Cowper; Bulwer Lytton ; Charles Lamb ; and John Leech. See Cussan's History of Herts (1880).