Hungary (Hung. Magyarorszag, Ger. Ungarn, Lat. Hungaria) is the eastern and larger half of the Austro-Hungai'ian monarchy, with an area of 124,633 sq. m., and a pop. (1900) of 19,254,559. With Transylvania, Croatia and Slavonia, and Fiume, it forms the realm of the crown of St Stephen or Transleithania, which is a coequal factor with Austria or Cisleithania in the empire-kingdom ruled over by the Hapsburg dynasty. The two have been united since 1526, and since 1867 have been reconstructed as a dual empire, each with its own laws, parliament, ministers, etc., but both under one monarch for military, diplomatic, and customs purposes. The geographical, industrial, and statistical features of Hungary have been dealt with in the article Austria. The Hungarians or Magyars, who entered Europe in 884, and established themselves in their present country five years later, speak a non-Aryan language, reckoned to belong to the Ugric branch of the Finnish stock. Hungary became a regular Christian kingdom in 1000 under King Stephen. Mathias Corvinus in the 15th century waged war successfully with the Turks and with the Bohemians. At the battle of Mohacs in 1526 Louis II. was utterly defeated by the Turks, and after an intestine struggle the Austrian Ferdinand became king. Since then the chief event in Hungary's history has been the great Magyar rising of 1848-49. See Felbermann, Hungary and its People (1892).