Ichang, a walled Chinese town, stands on the Yang-tsze-kiang, where it escapes from the limestone gorges of its middle course, and 1000 miles from Shanghai at its mouth. In 1877 it was declared open to foreign trade. Pop. 35,575.

Icknield Street

Icknield Street, an ancient Roman road, crossing England from Norfolk to Land's End.

Ickworth House

Ickworth House, the splendid seat (1792) of the Marquis of Bristol, in Suffolk, 3 miles SW. of Bury St Edmunds.


Icolmkill. See Iona.


Iconium, an ancient town of Asia Minor, situated on the W. edge of the plateau skirting the northern slopes of the Taurus Mountains, 310 miles E. of Smyrna. In 1832 Ibrahim Pasha defeated the Turks there. The modern Konieh or Koniya, the capital of a Turkish vilayet, has a pop. of 20,000 or 30,000. Here is the chief monastery of the Mevlevi or 'dancing' dervishes. Ruins of mosques, madrasas (colleges), etc. attest its decayed splendour.


Ida, a mountain-range in Asia Minor, extending from Phrygia through Mysia into the Troad. Troy stood at its base. On the highest peak (5749 feet) was a temple of Cybele, the Idœan Mother. From Ida flow the Granicus, Simois, and Scamander. - On another Ida (8055 feet) in Crete, Zeus was said to have been educated.


Iddesleigh, a Devon parish, 4 miles NE. of Hatherleigh. It gave his earl's title (1885) to Sir Stafford Northcote.


Idle, in 1899 incorporated with Bradford, was till then a distinct Yorkshire town, lying to the east of Bradford.


Idria, an Austrian town in Carniola, celebrated since 1497 for its quicksilver mines, lies 1093 feet above sea-level in the deep valley of the river Idria, 23 miles W. by S. of Laibach. Pop. 5984.


IdumAea. See Edom.


If, a rocky island in the Gulf of Marseilles, crowned by the Chateau d'lf, built by Francis I. Here were confined Mirabeau and Philip Egalite, not to mention ' Monte Cristo.'


Iffley, a village, with a fine Norman church, on the Isis, 1 3/4 mile below Oxford.


Ifni, a small seaport of southern Morocco, 35 miles S. of Aguilon, ceded to Spain in 1883.


Iglau (Bohm. Jihlava), the second largest town of Moravia, is situated 1703 feet above sea-level, on the river Iglawa, close to the Bohemian boundary, 123 miles NNW. of Vienna by rail. It has some old churches (one founded in 799). Its staples are cloth and woollen goods, besides glass and tobacco. Pop. 24,378.


Igloolik, an island near the east end of Fury and Hecla Strait in the Arctic Ocean. Here Parry passed the winter of 1822-23.


Igualada, a town of Spain, 32 miles NW. of Barcelona. Pop, 10,218.


Ilala, a place near the south shore of Lake Bangweolo in British S. Africa, where Dr Livingstone died.


Ilchester, a decayed village of Somerset, on the Yeo, 5 miles NW. of Yeovil. Supposed to be the Ischalis of Ptolemy, it was an important Roman station, and a flourishing Saxon town. Roger Bacon was a native. Till 1832 Ilchester returned two members. Pop. 664.