Indiana, the thirty-first state of the American Union in area, and the eighth in population, is centrally situated between Lake Michigan, Michigan state, Ohio, Kentucky (from which it is separated by the Ohio River), and Illinois. Its greatest length (N. and S.) is 276 miles, its average breadth 140 miles, and its area 36,350 sq. m. The surface has a slight slope towards the west and south-west, the highest point, near the eastern boundary, being 1250 feet above sea-level. Drainage is in four main directions: to Lake Michigan, to Lake Erie, to the Mississippi, and to the Ohio. The northern half of the state is generally level, except for occasional irregular ridges forming ' divides' between streams. Hills increase in frequency from the centre of the state to the south and south-east, and along the Ohio ' knobs' 200-500 feet high are almost continuous, with deep gorges and river-bottoms between. Much of the north-western regions is flooded most of the year; but this land is being actively reclaimed by drainage. The fertility of the soil, whether clay or sandy loam, is greatly increased by a vast system of under-draining. The .minerals include coal, bog and hematite iron ores, and stratified limestones and sandstones in abundance, ochre beds, kaolin, fireclays, and some gold. The actual workable coalfield covers an area of 6000 sq. m. The natural-gas field, the centre of which is in Delaware county, 40 miles NE. of Indianapolis, has been largely developed since 1886. In the gas region, and in the districts within reach of its pipes, it is used both as fuel and as illuminant. The principal industry of Indiana is agriculture. More than 10,000,000 acres are cultivated, the chief crops being maize, wheat, and oats, with barley, rye, flax, hay, potatoes, sweet potatoes, and tobacco. Wool, honey, maple-sugar, sor-, ghum-sugar, cider, and wine are also largely produced. Among the largest manufactories are the wagon and plough factories at South Bend, the manufactories of flour-mill machinery and carriages at Indianapolis, the plate-glass works at New Albany, and the encaustic tile works at Indianapolis. Indianapolis is great in pork-packing and in making sofas and other furniture. There are some 6500 miles of railway in the state. The Wabash and Erie Canal, the largest in the United States (476 miles), has 374 miles in Indiana. The Ohio is here navigable throughout; the Wabash is navigable to Lafayette. The pop. of Indiana (known as the 'Hoosier state,' Hoosier being a nickname for an inhabitant of Indiana) in 1800 numbered 4577 whites and 163 coloured, 135 of the latter being slaves. In 1860 the pop. was 1,350,428; in 1880, 1,978,301; in 1900, 2,516,462. Indianapolis had in 1900 169,164 inhabitants, Evansville had 59,000, Fort Wayne 45,115, Terre Haute 36,673, and South Bend 36,000. In the state university at Bloomington, the Purdue University and state institute of technology at Lafayette, and the state normal school at Terre Haute, as well as a hundred high schools, instruction is free. Not under state control are some fifteen universities and colleges, and numerous academies and special schools. Indiana was discovered by La Salle in 1671; in 1763 France ceded the country to Great Britain: by the treaty of 1783 it became a part of the United States; and in 1816 It was admitted to the Union.