Inverness', the county town of Inverness-shire, and capital of the northern Highlands, stands on the Ness, near its mouth in the Moray Firth and the north-east end of the Caledonian Canal, 108 miles by rail WNW. of Aberdeen, 144 NNW. of Perth, and 190 NNW. of Edinburgh. Its wooded environs, hemmed in by hills (Tomnahurich, 223 feet; Torvean, 300; Craigphadrick, 430; Dunean, 940, &c), form a picturesque and interesting landscape. Visited by Columba about 565, and by Malcolm Canmore made the seat of a royal castle, by Cromwell of a citadel (1652), Inverness has a wealth of memories. It was garrisoned by the English in 1296; in 1411 was burned by Donald of the Isles on his way to Harlaw; and figures repeatedly in the history of the Stuarts, down to their final overthrow at Culloden, hard by. In front of the Scoto-Flemish town-hall (1882), protected now by a fountain, is the Clach-na-Cudain, or ' stone of the tubs,' the palladium of the burgh. The Episcopal cathedral (1867) is a fine Decorated edifice; other features of the place are the county hall (1835) on the site of the castle, the infirmary (1804), the lunatic asylum (1860), the royal academy (1792), barracks (1884), the suspension bridge (1855), and the Islands, a favourite promenade. Malting, thread-making, and bleaching have given place to woollen manufacture, shipbuilding, distilling, etc, with considerable shipping and commerce, the harbour having been much improved in 1847. The great wool fair (established in 1817) is held in July ; and the Northern Meeting (1788) in September. A royal burgh since about 1067, Inverness unites with Forres, Fortrose, and Nairn to return one member to parliament. Pop. (1831) 9663; (1901) 23,066, of whom 6500 were Gaelic-speaking, though Inverness still is famous, as in Defoe's and Dr Johnson's day, for the purity of its English.