Inverugie (g hard), a ruined castle of Aberdeenshire, 3 miles NW. of Peterhead. It was the birthplace of Marshal Keith.


Inverurie, a royal burgh of Aberdeenshire, at the influx of the Urie to the Don, 16 miles NW. of Aberdeen. With Elgin, etc. it returns one member to parliament. Pop. 3625.


Ionia, the ancient name of the coast districts and islands of western Asia Minor.

Iowa City

Iowa City, capital of Johnson county, Iowa, and the seat of government from 1839 to 1856, is situated on the Iowa River, 120 miles by rail B. of Des Moines. The old capitol is now the state university. Pop. 7986.


Ipsambul. See Abu-Simbel.


Ipsden, an Oxfordshire parish, close to the Chilterns, 4 miles SE. of Wallingford. Charles Reade was a native.


Iquique (Ee-kee'kay), the port and capital of the Chilian territory of Tarapaca (Peruvian till 1881). It has amalgamating works in connection with neighbouring silver-mines. Pop. 35,391.


Iquitos, a town in the Peruvian dep. of Loreto, on the left bank of the Maranon, 75 miles above the mouth of the Rio Napo. Pop. 8000.


Irak-Ajemi, a central province of Persia, nearly coincident with ancient Media. Area, 138,190 sq. m. ; pop. 1,000,000.


Irak-Arabi (Arabian Irak), the most southeasterly district of Turkey in Asia, almost conterminous with ancient Babylonia, lies between the lower courses of the Tigris and the Euphrates. Pop. 2,000,000.


Iran, or Eran, originally the great Asian plateau bounded N. by the Hindu Kush and the Elburz, E. by the Indus, S. by the Persian Gulf, and W. by Kurdistan and the Tigris. The term is now the official designation of Persia.


Irbit, a town of the Russian government of Perm, 1170 miles nearly due E. of St Petersburg. Its February fair is next in importance to that of Nijni-Novgorod. Pop. 20,000.

Irish Sea

Irish Sea, between the north of Ireland and the north of England, with the south-western counties of Scotland on the north, is connected NW. with the Atlantic by the North Channel, and S. by St George's Channel. Between the coasts of Louth (Ireland) and Lancaster it has its greatest width of 150 miles; its greatest length north and south is about the same. Within it lie the Isle of Man and Anglesey.


Ironbridge, a village on the Severn, 1 mileE. of Coalbrookdale. It takes name from the bridge (1779), 100 1/2 feet in span, the earliest large cast-iron bridge in the kingdom.

Iron Gates

Iron Gates. See Danube.

Iron Mountain

Iron Mountain, a mining-town of Michigan, on the Menomonce River, 208 miles by rail N. of Milwaukee. It has risen since 1880. Pop. 9300.


Ironton, capital of Lawrence county, Ohio, on the Ohio River, 142 miles above Cincinnati. It is the chief business centre of an important iron region. Pop. 11,939.


Irrawaddy. See Irawadi.


Irtish, a river of Siberia, the chief affluent of the Obi (q.v.), rises at the east end of the Altai Mountains, passes through Lake Saisan, breaks through the Altai in the west at the bottom of a savage gorge, and flows north-westwards across the steppes of Western Siberia to join the Obi, from the left, at Samarow. At that point it has a width of 2000 yards; its total length is 1620 miles ; the area of its basin, 647,000 sq. m. The towns of Semipalatinsk, Omsk, and Tobolsk stand on its banks. Its tributaries include the Buch-tarma and Om from the right, and the Tobol and Ishim from the left.