Io'wa, one of the United States of America, with an area of 56,025 sq. m., is bounded by Minnesota, the Mississippi River, the state of Missouri, and the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers. The climate is continental, with cold winters, hot summers, and sudden changes of temperature; the autumns are beautiful and of long duration ; and Iowa is noted for its healthfulness. The surface is a rolling prairie ; there are no mountains, and hills or bluffs can only be found along the principal streams. The average elevation is not far from 900 feet; the highest point 1694 feet. Iowa has extensive and valuable mineral deposits, as coal, lead, gypsum, limestone, clay, and mineral paints. The coal, which is bituminous and of good quality, extends over an area of nearly 20,000 sq. in., and above 4 million tons are raised annually. There are several small lakes in the north. Iowa is preeminently an agricultural state, its fertile soil producing vast quantities of maize, wheat, oats, with barley, flax, buckwheat, rye, hay, sorghum, potatoes, butter, cheese, wool, and eggs. Nearly 98 per cent. of the total land area is under farms. The importance of live-stock in the state results in the growth of large quantities of hay and other forage crops. Manufactures are comparatively unimportant, the principal industries, after agriculture, being meat-packing and the preparation of other food-products. Amongst the principal exports are, besides agricultural and dairy products, considerable quantities of coal, gypsum, and lead. The territory of the state formed part of the 'Louisiana Purchase' (see Louisiana). Iowa was organised as a territory in 1838, and as a state in 1846. Pop. (1850) i92,214; (1880) 1,624,615 ; (1900) 2,231,853. The capital is Des Moines (pop. over 62,139); and there are five other cities with over 25,000 (Dubuque, Davenport, Sioux City, Council Bluffs, and Cedar Rapids).