Ipswich, the county town of Suffolk, a parliamentary, municipal, and county borough, 69 miles NE. of London by rail, is situated on the side of a hill on the left bank of the river Gipping, which, taking here the name of the Orwell, becomes tidal, and after a south-easterly course of 12 miles more falls into the German Ocean at Harwich. In the older portions of the town, principally grouped near the river, the streets are narrow and irregularly built, and still retain many picturesque old buildings, decorated with carved work, such as Sparrowe's House (1567), the Neptune Inn (1639), Archdeacon's Place (1471), and Wolsey's Gateway (1528). Of public buildings the principal are a town-hall (1868), in the Italian Renaissance style of architecture, surmounted by a clock-tower 130 feet high ; post-office (1881), and corn exchange (1882), both close by, and in the same style; public hall (1868); museum, schools of science and art, and free library (1881-87), the first of which, founded in 1847, is notable for its splendid collections of Suffolk Crag fossils and British birds; custom-house (1845); mechanics' institute (1824); hospital (1835-69-77); artillery and militia barracks; a theatre (1891), in whose predecessor Garrick, Mrs Keeley, and Mr Toole made their debut; St Mary Le Tower, with a spire 176 feet high, and a fine peal of twelve bells; and the grammar-school (c. 1477; reorganised by Queen Elizabeth in 1565, rebuilt in 1851, and reconstituted in 1881). Near it are two arboretums, charmingly laid out, and Christ-church Park, with its fine Tudor mansion (1549). Another favourite resort is the promenade by the river-side, skirting the west side of the dock. This latter, opened in 1842, covers 30 acres, and is approached from the Orwell by an entrance lock (1881) capable of admitting vessels of 1400 tons. The principal manufactures are those of agricultural implements, railway plant, artificial manures, and clothing. Cardinal Wolsey was a native, and Gainsborough a resident for fifteen years. Ipswich has returned two members to parliament since 1447. Pop. (1801) 11,336 ; (1841) 25,264 ; (1901) 66,622. See works by Clarke (1830), Wodderspoon (1842-50), Glyde (1850-87), and Dr J. E. Taylor (1889).