Irun (Ee-roon), a town in the Spanish province of Guipuzcoa, on the Bidassoa, near the French frontier, 24 miles by rail SW. of Bayoune. In 1837 General Sir De Lacy Evans captured it from the Carlists. Pop. 9800.


Irvine, a seaport of Ayrshire, on the river Irvine, 1 1/4 mile from the Firth of Clyde, and 11 miles by rail N. of Ayr, 29 SW. of Glasgow. Made a sub-port of Troon in 1S63, its harbour has been improved since 1873 ; and there are chemical works, foundries, grain-stores, etc. The bridge (1746-1837), the new town-hall (1859), a statue of Lord-justice-general Boyle (1867), and the academy (1814) are features of the town, which became a royal burgh about 1230, and which with Ayr, etc. returns one member to parliament. It was the birthplace of Galt and James Montgomery, and has memories also of Burns and the Buchanites. Pop. (1841) 4594 ; (1901) 9618.


Irvinestown, a town of County Fermanagh, 8 miles N. of Enniskillen. Pop. 781.


Irwell, a river of Lancashire, flowing 30 miles past Manchester, to the Mersey below Floxton.


Isandu'la, or Isandhlwana, in the north-east of Natal, on the left bank of the Buffalo River, 110 miles N. by W. of Durban. There, on 22d January 1879, the British camp was surprised by 18,000 Zulus in Lord Chelmsford's absence and almost annihilated. The British loss exceeded 800, that of the Zulus 2000.


Isar, or Iser, a river of Bavaria, rises in the Tyrol, north-east of Innsbruck, and flows 220 miles north and north-east to the Danube near Deggendorf. Munich and Landshut are on the banks ' of Iser, rolling rapidly;' Hohenlinden (q.v.) is 20 miles away. Large quantities of wood are floated down the Isar from the mountains.


Isauria, in ancient geography, a district of Asia Minor, occupying the summit and northern slopes of Mount Taurus.


Ischia (Is'kee-a; anc. Aenaria and Pithecusa), an island on the north side of the entrance to the Bay of Naples, 6 miles from the mainland. Area, 26 sq. m.; pop. 27,500. Ischia is a favourite summer-resort, being noted for the excellence of its warm mineral waters, the richness of its soil, the flavour of its fruits and wines, and the beauty of its scenery. Its highest point is the volcanic Monte Epomeo, 2608 feet, the last outbreak of which occurred in 1302. In 1881 Casamicciola was nearly destroyed by two earthquake shocks, and in 1883 it was utterly overwhelmed, 1990 persons losing their lives. Chief towns : Ischia (7000), a bishop's seat; Casamicciola (3963); and Forio (7500). See Johnston-Lavis, The Earthquakes of Ischia (1886).


Ischl (Eeshl), a town of Upper Austria, the capital of the Salzkammergut, is finely seated, 1536 feet above sea-level, on the river Traun, amid magnificent Alpine scenery, 33 miles E. by S. of Salzburg. Its situation, and the saline baths, established in 1822, attract 5000 visitors annually, including the Austrian royal family, who have a villa here. Yearly 8000 tons of salt are manufactured in the salt-works, opened in 1571. Pop. 9700.