Jackson, (1) a flourishing city of Michigan, capital of Jackson county, on the Grand River, 76 miles W. of Detroit, at the intersection of several railways. It has flour, paper, and planing-mills; foundries and machine-shops; locomotive-works ; breweries; and manufactures of furniture, carriages, wagons, boilers and machinery, farming implements, corsets, soap, etc, besides boots and shoes at the state-prison. Close by are several mines of bituminous coal. Jackson was settled in 1830, and became a city in 1857. Pop. (1860) 4799; (1870) 11,447; (1900) 25,180.- (2) Capital of the state of Mississippi, on Pearl River, 45 miles E. of Vicksburg by rail, with trade in cotton. Pop. 7920.-(3) Capital of Madison county, Tennessee, on the South Fork of the Forked Deer River, 107 miles by rail S. by E. of Cairo, Illinois. It is the seat of the Southwestern Baptist University (1874), and has a cotton market, planing and other mills, and railway shops. Pop. 15,000.


Jacksonville, (1) capital of Duval county, Florida, on the St John's River, 23 miles from its mouth. The meeting-place of five railways, it is 165 miles by rail E. of Tallahassee. It exports lumber, cotton, moss, oranges, etc. Pop. (1880) 7650; (1900)28,429.-<2) Capital of Morgan county, Illinois, 34 miles W. by S. of Springfield. Here are the Illinois College (Congregational; founded 1830), a Methodist female college (1847), a conservatory of music, etc.; and here, too, are state asylums for the blind, deaf and dumb, and insane. There are manufactures of woollens, paper, machinery, boilers, lumber, furniture, confectionery, etc. Pop. 16,500.


Jacobabad, a town of Upper Sind, 26 miles NW- of Shikarpur by rail, near the Beluchi frontier. Here is the tomb of General John Jacob, commandant of the Sind Horse, who in 1847 founded the place. Pop. 12,352.


Jaen (Ha-en'), the capital of a Spanish province, on a tributary of the Guadalquivir, 50 miles N. by W. of Granada. Its Moorish walls are fast crumbling away; its cathedral dates from 1532. Population, 25,600. By the Moors the town was called 'Jaen of the Silk,' from its former silk manufactures. The province (area, 5184 sq. m.; pop. 475,000), part of Andalusia (q.v.), lies in the Guadalquivir's basin, and is mountainous. In 1246 it was reconquered from the Moors by Ferdinand III. of Castile.


Jaffa, or Joppa, a town on the sea-coast of Syria, 37 miles NW. of Jerusalem-57 by a railway opened in 1893. Under Constantino the place, which had been destroyed by Vespasian, became a bishop's see, and, as the Crusaders' great landing-place, was taken and retaken by Christian and Moslem. In 1799 Napoleon stormed it; in 1832 it was taken by Mehemet Ali, and restored to the Turks by British help. The open roadstead, the ancient walls, the yellow sand-dunes, and the orange gardens are now the chief features of the brown town on its hillock. The export of oranges to the United Kingdom more than tripled in the last three decades of the 19th century, and the population grew from 15,000 to about 40,000. There is a German colony (1869) of 300 persons near.