Janina (Yanina), or Joannina, capital of a vilayet in Turkish Albania, stands in a striking situation on a lake (12 miles long by 3 broad), 50 miles inland from the shore opposite Corfu. Here is the ruined castle of Ali Pasha. Gold lace is manufactured, as well as morocco leather, silks, and linens. The pop. has sunk from 40,000 in 1800 to 26,000, three-fourths of them Greeks. The town has been Turkish since 1430.

Jan Mayen Land

Jan Mayen Land, a volcanic island in the Arctic Ocean, named after its Dutch discoverer in 1611. It lies between Iceland and Spitzbergen, and is 35 miles long, with an extinct volcano (8350 feet) in it.


Jarnac, a village in the French dep. of Char-ente, 23 miles by rail W. of Angouleme. Here in 1569 the Catholics defeated the Huguenots.


Jaroslav (Yaroslaf), capital of a Russian government on the Volga, 173 miles NE. of Moscow. Pop. 70,600.-The government has an area of 13,751 sq. m. and a pop. of 1,075,000.


Jarrow, a municipal borough and port of Durham, on the Tyne, 3 miles by rail SW. of South Shields and 7 E. of Newcastle. Its growth from a small colliery village has been due to the construction of its docks (since 1859), and to the establishment of Palmer and Co.'s iron-shipbuilding and marine engine works, blast-furnaces, iron-foundries, gun-factory, etc, which together employ upwards of 7000 hands. Paper and chemicals are also manufactured, and coal is shipped in large quantities. At Jarrow in 682 Benedict Biscop founded the Benedictine monastery with which the name of Bede is inseparably associated. The chancel of the parish church, reconstructed in the 11th century, retains portions of Benedict's work; the nave was rebuilt in 1783 and again in 1866. Bede's chair is still preserved in the church. Jarrow was made a municipality in 1875. Pop. (1871) 18,115 ; (1901) 34,294. See Jewitt's Jarrow Church (1864).


Jashpur, a native state of Chutia Nagpur, in Bengal. Area, 1963 sq. m. ; pop. 90,240.


Jassy (Yassy), the capital of Moldavia, the northern division of Roumania, stands 5 miles W. of the Pruth, 205 by rail NW. of Odessa, and 289 NNB. of Bucharest. It was almost destroyed by fire in 1827, and, as rebuilt, has broad streets paved with asphalt, and houses mostly one-storied and of wood. There are more than forty Greek churches and close upon sixty Jewish synagogues. The most noticeable secular buildings are the palaces of the boyars or nobles. There is a small university. There is an active trade in corn, apirits, and wine, mostly with Galatz. Pop. 80,000. Jassy was the residence of the Moldavian princes from 1565.


Jaszbereny, a town of Hungary, 39 miles E. of Budapest. Pop. 24,331.


Jativa, or Xativa, San Felipe de (Ha'teeva), a town of Spain, 35 miles by rail SSW. of Valencia. Here was born the painter Ribera (Lo Spagnoletto) in 1588. It was also the home of the notorious Borgia (Borja) family. Pop. 15,071.