Jenissei. See Yenisei.

Jenolan Caves

Jeno'lan Caves, a series of vast limestone caverns (rivalling the Mammoth Caves of Kentucky), on the west side of the Blue Mountains, in New South Wales, 160 miles W. of Sydney. Discovered in 1841, they became in 1866 public property. See S. Cook's Jenolan Caves (1889).


Jerash. See Gerasa.


Jerba, a small island of Tunis, in the Gulf of Gabes, being separated from the mainland by a narrow channel. Area, 425 sq. m; pop. 45,000.


Jerez. See Xeres.


Jericho, once one of the most flourishing cities of Palestine, two hours' journey westward from the Jordan, and six hours north-east from Jerusalem. It is now a shapeless ruin, with a miserable village, Riha or Ariha, and excavations into the green mounds have disclosed only sun-dried bricks.


Jervaulx (locally Jarvis), a place in the North Riding of Yorkshire, 3 miles SB. of Middleham, with remains of a Cistercian abbey (1156).


Jesmond. See Newcastle.


Jessor, or Kasba, a town of Bengal, 74 miles NE. of Calcutta. Pop. 8495. Since the opening of the Central Bengal Railway, it has developed into a trading-mart.


Jeypore (Jaipur), a protected native state in Rajputana (q.v.), with an area of 14,465 sq. m., and a population of 2,700,000, chiefly Hindus. It came under British protection in 1818. The maharajah was eminently loyal during the Mutiny, and was rewarded with an extension of territory. - The capital, Jeypore, is a walled city, 850 miles NW. of Calcutta and 149 NE. of Ajmere by rail. It is a handsome and regularly-built town, with the maharajah's palace in the centre, and is the most important commercial centre of Rajputana. It was founded as late as 1728 ; the ancient and now deserted capital, Amber, lies 5 miles to the NE. The commercial business of Jeypore is chiefly banking and exchange, with a capital engaged of over 7,000,000. In addition to the banks there are the maharajah's college, an industrial and economic museum, a school of art, an observatory, a mint, and the 'Mayo' Hospital, besides the beautiful Ram Newas Gardens (70 acres). Pop. 160,000.


Jhansi, a fortified town in Gwalior state, Central India (till 1861 in the British North-west Provinces). During the Mutiny of 1857 its native garrison murdered all the Europeans; next April it was recovered by Sir Hugh Rose. Pop., with British cantonment, 56,000.


Jhelum, Jehlam, or Bitasta (hence anc. Hydaspes), one of the rivers of the Punjab, rises in the mountains of Cashmere. About 250 miles from its source it enters the plains, and, after a total course of 450 miles, joins the Chenab at Timmu. On its banks was fought the battle between Alexander the Great and Porus (326 n.c.). - Jhelum, headquarters of a district in the Punjab, on the Jhelum River. Pop. with cantonment, 25,580.


Jiboutil. See Obock.


Jiddah, or Jeddah, a seaport of the Hedjaz, Arabia, stands on the Red Sea, 65 miles W. of Mecca. It is an unhealthy town, suffering greatly from want of water. As the port, however, of Mecca, it is the place of disembarkation for pilgrims bound for the holy city (46,953 in 1891). Besides this it has an active, though a decreasing, trade. The imports comprise corn, sugar, metals, earthenware, textiles, etc. ; the exports, mother-of-pearl, hides, coffee, balsams, dates, carpets, etc. A quay and a quay-railway were built in 1889. Pop. 25,000.