Jersey, the chief of the Channel Islands (q.v.), 14 miles from the Norman coast, 133 from Southampton, 95 from Weymouth. Measuring 11 miles by 5 1/2, it is 45 sq. m. in area, of which nearly two-thirds is cultivated. Pop. (1806) 22,855; (1851) 57,020 ; (1901) 52,796, of whom 29,000 were in the capital, St Helier. The land rises northward, culminating in Mount Mado (473 feet). On all sides are large open bays; Boulay on the north is capable of becoming a fine harbour; that of St Helier is dry at low-water. The rocks on the coasts have been eroded by the sea, which has left many caverns and fantastic pinnacles. About the south-east are numerous dangerous reefs. Between Jersey and the French shore the Ecrehos, ;uffetins, and Minquiers indicate a former connection with the mainland. It is also noticeable that moles and toads are found in Jersey, as also in Alderney, while there are none in Guernsey. The chief staple is the potato, which comes into the London market a fortnight before that of the west of England. Consequently other cultivation has been much neglected, and the land greatly stimulated by artificial manures. The potato export is about 100,000 tons yearly, of a value of 350,000. The rearing of cattle is also lucrative; it is estimated that there are fifty-eight head of cattle to every 100'acres - nearly three times the ratio of the United Kingdom. The purity of the breed is maintained by careful official registration, and the stock fetches high prices from breeders in England and America. The number of cattle exported averages nearly 1600 head annually. The imports consist largely of potatoes and butcher-ineat from France and England, as the island produces little food for its own consumption. The language of legislative and judicial business is French, though the people among themselves use either English or a form of the ancient Norman. The parish churches are old, but have lost many traces of their primitive architecture in frequent restorations. The royal court is a large but ill-lighted building containing a portrait of Marshal Conway, by Gainsborough. The character of the people is orderly and frugal, the deposits in the savings-bank exceeding 350,000. There is little pauperism and hardly any serious crime.