Jihun. See Oxus.


Jimena, or Ximena, a town of Spain, 21 miles N. of Gibraltar, has some remarkable caves and the remains of a Moorish castle. Pop. 8677.


Joachimsthal (Yo'aheemstal), a mining-town of Bohemia, at an altitude of 2400 feet, on the southern slopes of the Erzgebirge, 10 miles N. of Carlsbad. The mines yield still a little silver, and also nickel, bismuth, uranium. Pop. 7628.

Jocks Lodge

Jock's Lodge, or Piershill, a Midlothian village, 1 3/4 mile E. by N. of Edinburgh, with large cavalry barracks, dating from 1793.


Jodhpur, or Marwar, the largest in area of the Rajputana states, containing 37,445 sq. m.; and the second in pop. (about 2,000,000). - The capital is Jodhpur, founded in 1459 ; pop. 60,450.


Johanna. See Comoro Isles.


Johannisberg, a village of Prussia, overlooking the Rhine, 13 miles WSW. of Wiesbaden. It is noteworthy chiefly for the castle (1732) of the Metternich family, and the famous vineyards (38 acres) on the castle hill, producing the choice Johannisberger white wine. Pop. 1316.

John o Groats House

John o' Groat's House, in Caithness, 1 3/4 mile W. of Duncansbay Head, and 18 miles N. of Wick, was, according to tradition, an octagonal building with eight doors and windows and an eight-sided table within, built by John o' Groat to prevent dissensions as to precedence among the eight different branches of his family. Certain it is that between 1496 and 1525 there was one ' John o' Grot of Duncansbay, baillie to the Earl in those pairts,' and probably a Hollander. An outline on the turf marks the site of the house; and the neighbouring hotel (1876) has, appropristely enough, an octagonal tower. 'Frae Maiden-kirk to John o' Groat's' (Burns) is the Scottish equivalent of ' from Dan to Beersheba,' Maiden-kirk being Kirkmaiden in the Mull of Galloway.


Johnshaven, a Kincardineshire fishing-village, 9 1/4 miles NNE. of Montrose. Pop. 987.


Johnston, formerly a town of Rhode Island, now forming part of Providence (q.v.).


Johnstone, a manufacturing town of Renfrewshire, on the Black Cart, 3 1/2 miles W. by S. of Paisley. Founded in 1781, it contains a large flax-mill, cotton-mills, a paper-mill, foundries, and machine-shops. Pop. (1831) 5617 ; (1901) 10,502.


Johnstown, (1) capital of Fulton county, New York, on Cayadutta Creek, 48 miles WNW. of Albany. It has mills and large manufactories of gloves and mittens. Pop. 10,150. - (2) A town of Pennsylvania, on the Conemangh River, 78 miles E. by S. of Pittsburgh by rail, with large iron and steel works, tanneries, and flour, planing, and woollen mills. Johnstown was overwhelmed by the bursting of a reservoir on 31st May 1889. Pop. (1880) 8380 ; (1890) 21,805; (1900) 35,936.


Johore, an independent state at the S. extremity of the Malay Peninsula. It is densely timbered, and rises into several mountain-peaks, the highest Mount Ophir (4186 feet). Area, 10,000 sq. m.; pop. 200,000, mostly Malays and Chinese. The capital is Johore, 15 miles NE. of Singapore.