Johannesburg, the chief town and mining centre of the Transvaal goldfields, is situated about 6000 feet above sea-level, 298 miles NE. of Kimberley, and 838 NE. of Capetown, being connected with both by rail (1892). In 1886 the Transvaal government proclaimed as goldfields certain farms on and around the now famous Reef of Witwatersrandt, 30 miles SSW. of the capital Pretoria. The progress of the place and the mining industry was steady and rapid. Fine banks, churches, hotels, club-houses, a magnificent stock exchange, and some handsome streets reflect the wealth of the town, though much of it consists of mean huts and shanties. The Transvaal Institute promises to become a university for the province. The climate is healthy, save for dust-storms ; the supply of water is still imperfect. Johannesburg was largely the scene of the intrigues and struggles that led to the war of 1899-1902. It was occupied by Lord Roberts in May 1900. The British Association held some of its sittings here in 1905. Pop. (1905) 160,000 (84,000 whites).