Joigny (Zhwan'yee, anc. Joviniacum), an old walled town in the French dep. of Yonne, 90 miles by rail SE. of Paris, manufactures cloth, linen, and sporting rifles. Pop. 5271.


Joinville (Zhwanveell), a small town of 4000 inhabitants in the French dep. of Haute-Marne, 22 miles N. of Chaumont by rail.


Jokjakarta, a residency in the centre of Java. Area, 1191 sq. m. ; pop. 500,000. The capital, Jokjakarta (pop. 58,000), has the sultan's palace and ruins of ancient temples.


Joliba. See Niger.


Joliet, capital of Will, county, Illinois, is on Des Plaines River, 40 miles SW. of Chicago by rail, and its water-power is increased by a canal from Lake Michigan. It has a state prison, manufactures flour, steel rails, wire, stoves, tools, boots, paper, tiles, cigars, etc. There are large quarries of limestone, and a coalfield in the neighbourhood. Pop. (1880) 11,657; (1900)29,353.


Jonkoping (Yonchoping), the capital of a Swedish Ian or county (area, 4468 sq. m. ; pop. in 1892, 193,389), is beautifully situated at the south end of Lake Wetter, 115 miles by rail E. of Gothenburg. It is famous for its safety-matches. Paper, carpets, tobacco, etc. are also made. Pop. (1875) 13,142 ; (1900) 23,143.


Joplin, a town of Missouri, 167 miles by rail S. of Kansas City, with load and zinc mines and smelting furnaces. Pop. 27,000.


Joppa. See Jaffa and Portobello.


Jordan ('descending'), the principal river of Palestine, forms a great valley stretching from north to south. The highest source is the Has-bany, which rises near the Druse town of Has-beiya, on the west side of Mount Hermon; another spring is on the south side at Banias (Paneas or CAesarea Philippi). The Jordan flows south for over 100 miles, passing through the small Huleh Lake (The Waters of Merom) and the Lake of Tiberias (Sea of Galilee), and falls into the northern extremity of the Dead Sea (q.v.), 1292 feet below the Mediterranean. As the source is 1700 feet above the Mediterranean, the total fall is 3000 feet. The river, which varies much in breadth, from 30 to 50 yards, flows latterly in a sunken channel. Its banks of white marl are in some places flat, in others steep ; in the north partly occupied by fields of barley, but barren below Jericho.


Jorullo (Ho-rool'yo), a volcanic mountain in the Mexican state of Michoacan, 4315 feet above sea-level, and 1640 feet above the plain on which it stands, 150 miles WSW. of Mexico City. It was thrown up one night, 29th September 1759, after several months of subterranean convulsions.


Josephstadt, an important Austrian fortress, stands at the confluence of the Mettau and the Elbe in Bohemia, 10 1/2 miles N. by E. of Konig-gratz. Pop. 6963.

Joyces Country

Joyce's Country, a mountainous district in the north-west of the county of Galway.

Juan Fernandez

Juan Fernandez, called also Mas-A-tierra ('nearer the mainland'), a rocky Chilian island in the Pacific Ocean, 420 miles W. of Valparaiso. It is 13 miles long and 4 broad, and is for the most part a series of rocky peaks of volcanic origin (the highest 3000 feet). The trees are mostly ferns. Horses, pigs, and goats run wild. The island was discovered by the Spaniard whose name it bears in 1563, and was frequently visited by buccaneers. Here Alexander Selkirk, a marooned privateer, a native of Largo, lived from 1704 to 1709. His story is supposed to have suggested the Robinson Crusoe of Defoe; though in the story Robinson's island is placed on the other side of South America, near the mouth of the Orinoco. Chili used the island as a penal settlement from 1819 to 1835. It is usually inhabited by a few Chilian sea-lion hunters; and in 1877 it was leased to a Swiss, who established a small colony there. See Mackenna, Juan Fernandez (Santiago, 1883).