Kansas, the central state of the American Union, and the eighth in area, is bounded N. by Nebraska, E. by Missouri, S. by Indian Territory, and W. by Colorado. It is about 400 miles from east to west, and 200 from north to south, and contains an area of 82,080 sq. m. The surface is for the most part a rolling prairie, rising from 800 feet in the east to between 3000 and 4000 feet in the north-west. Kansas has no navigable river except the Missouri, which forms part of its eastern boundary. The Kansas or Kaw (300 miles) drains nearly half the state, and the Arkansas drains another large portion. The climate is subject to extremes of temperature. A record of 106° F. above zero has been observed; but the mercury rarely falls below zero. The mean annual rainfall is 37.10 inches; but in the west the supply is scanty, and in the upper Arkansas valley irrigation has been introduced. The minerals of Kansas include lead and zinc, excellent coal, lignite, rock-salt, mineral paint, gypsum, good building-stones, brick-clay, and material for hydraulic cement. Kansas is an agricultural and pastoral state, wheat, maize, and oats being the chief crops. Horticulture has steadily extended, and the growing of sorghum cane for sugar. Great quantities of prairie hay are cut; and thousands of acres of planted timber now break the surface of the prairie. Creameries are numerous, and more attention is given to the raising of stock. Of the manufacturing industries the most important is beef and pork packing (mainly at Kansas City), flour-milling, foundry-work, and the manufacture of stoves and agricultural implements. The suffrage provisions allow women to vote at school and municipal elections ; and there is a prohibitory liquor law. The state university is at Lawrence; an agricultural college at Manhattan ; and a normal school at Emporia. The name is derived from the Kaw or Kansas Indians. The state, mostly acquired in the Louisiana purchase, was organised as a territory in 1854, and at once became the battleground between the partisans of slavery and freedom. The Federal administration sided with the pro-slavery party. John Brown took part in the civil war which prevailed, and many fights that were almost battles took place. The Free State party was steadily reinforced from the north, and after several futile endeavours the Wyandotte constitution was finally adopted in 1859, and in 1861 Kansas was admitted as a non-slaveholding state of the Union. Pop. (1860) 107,206; (1900)1,470,495. The largest cities are Kansas City (q.v.), Topeka, the capital (33,650), and Wichita (24,700); next come Leavenworth, Atchison, and Fort Scott.