Karshi, a town of Bokhara, 95 miles SE. of Bokhara city and 80 SW. of Samarcand. It is of great importance in the transit trade between Bokhara, Kabul, and India ; and its knives and firearms are famed. Pop. 25,000.
Karst. See Croatia.
Kartum. See Khartoum.
Karun River, the sole navigable river of Persia, rising in the Zardah Koh Mountains, near Ispahan, flows west through gorges of the Bakhtiari Range to Shuster, where it becomes navigable. At Ahwaz a reach of rapids and broken water bars the course of vessels to the Lower Karun ; and here since 1890 a tramway has been constructed. Below Ahwaz the river is 300 to 500 yards wide, and flows for 117 miles without an obstacle through a country naturally rich and fertile. Mohammerah lies at the Karun junction with the waters of the Euphrates and Tigris (Shat-el-Arab). In 1842 Lieutenant Selby ascended the Karun to Shuster; but it was not till 1888 that the navigation was thrown open. See W. F. Ainsworth, The River Kdritn (1890).
Kasai. See Congo.
Kaschau (Ka-show; Hung. Kassa), one of the handsomest towns of Hungary, in the beautiful valley of the Hernad, 130 miles by rail NE. of Budapest. It has a cathedral (1270-1468), the finest Gothic edifice in Hungary, and manufactures tobacco, stoneware, furniture, starch, nails, and paper. Of the Jesuit university (1659) only the law academy remains. Pop. 37,500.
Kashan, a flourishing town of Persia, 3690 feet above sea-level, and 92 miles N. of Ispahan. It manufactures silk-stuffs, gold brocade, glazed tiles, carpets, and copper-wares. Pop. 30,000.
Kashgar, the political capital of Eastern or Chinese Turkestan, and, next to Yarkand, the second place of importance. The town and district have a pop. of 120,000. The old city is a small fortified place overlooking the Kizil River, separating it from the new city, in which stands the palace of the Chinese governor of the province, as well as the Mosque (Juma Mesjid). The people excel in certain branches of industry, as the making of cottons, silks, carpets, saddlery, etc, and carry on trade, chiefly with Russia. Kashgar, the centre of Mohammedan learning in eastern Turkestan, is besides a famous pilgrimage place. In 1758 the Chinese seized Kashgar, and with short interruption it has remained in their power. A successful rebellion was that of Yakub Kushbeghi (1864-77), but since the country was retaken by the Chinese, Kashgar has been left to the influence of Russia. See Colonel Kuropatkin's Kashgaria (Eng. trans. 1883).
Kashkar. See Chitral.
Kashmir. See Cashmere.