Kazan, capital of the Russian government of Kazan, and in the 15th century capital of the Mongol kingdom of the Golden Horde, stands 3 miles from the Volga's north bank, and 200 miles E. by S. of Nijni-Novgorod. In 1552 the Russians, under Ivan the Terrible, stormed the town, and put an end to the Mongol kingdom. The kremlin or fortress embraces within its walls the archi-episcopal cathedral (1562), a magnificent monastery (1579), an arsenal, etc. ; the red brick Sumbek Tower is an object of veneration to the Tartars. The university, founded in 1804, has four faculties, nearly 1000 students, a library of 80,000 vols., an observatory, etc. The principal objects of industry are leather, soap (made from mare's milk), candles, gunpowder, books, hempen goods, cotton, etc. Close by are the shipbuilding-yards in which Peter the Great built his Caspian fleet. The Tartar merchants of Kazan trade as far as Bokhara and Persia on the one side and as Asia Minor on the other. Pop. (1871) 86,000; (1905) 150,000. The town has suffered severely from lire more than a dozen times, especially in 1774, 1815, and 1825.