Kurdistan' ('the Country of the Kurds'), an extensive geographical, though not political, region mainly to the NE. of Turkey in Asia, S. and W. of Erzerum, but including the part of Persia about Urumia. Area, 50,000 sq. m. ; pop. over 2,250,000 - nearly 1,500,000 in Turkey, 700,000 in Persia, and 45,000 in Russian Transcaucasia. The surface ranges from 5000 up to 15,000 feet in altitude. Numerous rivers force their way through the mountains, and go to feed the Tigris and the Euphrates. The bulk of the inhabitants are Kurds (the ancient Carduchi), partly nomad and pastoral, partly settled and agricultural, by race Turanian, but speaking an old Persian dialect. Their forays have been a sore affliction to their Armenian neighbours. In 18S0 an extensive Kurdish rising against Persia took place. Some Nestorian Christians inhabit the valley of the Tigris; but the Kurds are Mohammedans. The chief towns are Bitlis, Van, Urumia, Diar-bekr, and Kermanshah. See Millingen, Wild Life Among the Koords (1870).