Lanarkshire, or Clydesdale, a Scottish county, enclosed by Stirling, Dumbarton, Linlithgow, Edinburgh, Peebles, Dumfries, Ayr, and Renfrew shires. Its length is 50 miles, its greatest breadth 32 miles, and its area 889 sq. m. Drained almost entirely by the Clyde (q.v.) and its numerous affluents, Lanarkshire is subdivided into three wards, of which the upper or southern comprises 332,338 acres, the middle 194,211, and the lower 42,319. These offer a striking diversity of aspect - lonely uplands, smiling orchards, busy coalfields and manufacturing district. The principal hills are Green Lowther (2402 feet) and far-seen Tinto (2335); whilst the mining-village of Lead-hills (1300 feet) is the highest in Scotland. The county possesses great mineral wealth - coal, ironstone, fireclay, shale, and lead, with some silver and even gold. The coal alone in the Lanarkshire coalfield is estimated to exceed 2000 million tons. The soil is as various as the scenery ; and barely one-half of the whole area is in cultivation, whilst woods occupy 20,000 acres, orchards nearly 600, and market-gardens over 1300. The orchards of Clydesdale were famous as early as the time of Bede, and yielded into the 19th century 8000 per annum; but now the ground is more profitably employed in producing strawberries, gooseberries, vegetables, etc. for the Glasgow market. Lanarkshire is not a great grain county; but much of it is excellently adapted for the rearing of stock and for dairy purposes. The sheep are Cheviots and black-faced, the cattle Ayrshires ; and the celebrated Clydesdale cart-horses issue from a Flemish cross (about 1720). The mineral, textile, and other industries are very extensive, and are noticed under the towns - Glasgow, Rutherglen, Lanark, Hamilton, Airdrie, Coatbridge, Motherwell, Wishaw, etc. Besides prehistoric and Roman remains, Lanarkshire contains the castles of Both well, Douglas, and Craignethan (Scott's ' Tillietudlem'), the priories of Blantyre and Lesmahagow, and the battlefields of Langside, Drumclog, and Both well Brig. Among its worthies have been Joanna Baillie, Dr John Brown, Sir Colin Campbell, Thomas Campbell, Lord Dundonald, David Livingstone, and Sir John Moore. Though only the twelfth in size, Lanarkshire is far the most populous and wealthy of all the thirty-three Scottish counties. Pop. (1801) 147,692; (1841) 426,972; (1901) 1,339,327 - Lanarkshire now including the whole of Glasgow under the Local Government (Scotland) Act of 1889.

See works by Hamilton of Wishaw (Maitland Club, 1831), Irving and Murray (1864), and others cited at Glasgow, Clyde, Biggar, etc.