Lan'caster, the capital of Lancashire, is picturesquely situated on an eminence on the left bank of the Lune, 7 miles from its mouth, 51 1/2 NNW. of Manchester and 231 NW. of London by rail. The ancient castle, which overlooks the town, was built on the site of a Roman castle, and was restored by John of Gaunt, ' time-honoured Lan. caster;' it is now used as the county jail. The church of St Mary (15th century) contains some good oak-carvings and stained glass. The Ripley Hospital is an asylum for orphan children. The Lune is here crossed by a bridge of five arches, erected in 1788, and by an aqueduct carrying the Lancaster Canal across the river. Owing to the sanding of the Lune, large vessels have to unload at Glasson, 5 miles distant. The chief manufactures are furniture, cotton, silk, oilcloth, table-covers, machinery, and railway plant. A public park was presented in 1881. Sir R. Owen and Dr Whewell were natives. In 1698 the town was nearly burned to the ground. A very ancient municipal borough, it returned two members from 1547 to 1867, when it was disfranchised for corrupt practices. The municipal boundary was extended in 1S88 and 1900. Pop. (1851) 14,602; (1901) 40,329. See works by Hall (1843) and Simpson (1852).
Lancaster, (1) capital of Fairfield county, Ohio, on the Hocking River and Canal, 32 miles SE. of Columbus, with machine-works and railway shops. Pop. 9555. - (2) Capital of Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, 69 miles by rail W. of Philadelphia. It has a large court-house, the Franklin and Marshall (German Reformed) College, large cotton-mills, tanneries, breweries, potteries, and extensive warehouses for tobacco. Founded in 1730, Lancaster was the state capital from 1799 to 1812. Pop. (1870) 20,233 ; (1900) 41,460.