Lanercost, an Augustinian priory, founded about 1169, lies in the valley of the Irthing, 16 miles NE. of Carlisle. It is partly in ruins ; but the nave is used as a parish church. Naworth Castle, 1 mile S. of the priory, is associated with the ' Belted Will Howard' of Scott's Lay of the Last Minstrel; it contains old armour, tapestry, etc. See R. S. Ferguson's Lanercost (1870).
Langdale Pikes, two Westmorland summits, at the head of Great Langdale Valley, 2401 and 2323 feet high.
Langeland (i.e. 'long land'), a low, fertile Danish island, 33 miles long by 5 broad, at the southern entrance to the Great Belt. Area, 106 sq. m.; pop. 19,000. Chief town, Rudkjobing (pop. 3179), on the west coast.
Langensalza (Lang-en-salt'za), a town of Prussian Saxony, 13 miles by rail N. by W. of Gotha, with a pop. of 12,924, a neighbouring sulphur-spring, and woollen and cloth manufactures. Here, on 27th June 1866, 19,000 Hanoverians encountered 8200 Prussians ; the latter were at first defeated, but being reinforced compelled the former to capitulate two days later.
Lang'holm, a market-town of Dumfriesshire, at the junction of Ewes and Wauchope Waters with the Esk, 23 miles SSW. of Hawick, and 22 (by a branch-line) N. of Carlisle. Near the town-hall is a marble statue of Admiral Sir Pulteney Malcolm (1768-1838), and on White Hill an obelisk to his brother, General Sir John Malcolm (1769-1833). Shepherd's plaid and tweeds have been manufactured since 1832. In 1890 Thomas Hope, a New York merchant and native of Langholm, left £80,000 to found a hospital here. Langholm is a burgh of barony (1643), under the Duke of Buc-cleuch, whose seat, Langholm Lodge, is close by. The Douglases were defeated here in the battle of Arkinholm (1455). Pop. 3143.
Langness, a headland at the south-east extremity of the Isle of Man.
Langres (Longr), a town in the French dep. of Haute-Marne, lies 1530 feet above sea-level (one of the highest towns in France), 184 miles ESE. of Paris by rail. As key of the communication between the Seine and the Rhone, it has been strongly fortified since 1868, and has a cathedral of the 12th and 13th c. Pop. 7846. Langres (anc. Andematunnum) in CAesar's time was capital of the Lingones, whence the name.
Languedoc (Lang-doc'), a former province of the south of France, bounded E. by the Rhone, and S. by the Mediterranean, and now embraced in the deps. of Lozere, Gard, Ardeche, Aude, Herault, Upper Loire, Tarn, and Upper Garonne. The name is derived from langue d'oc, the southern French dialect, or Provencal, so called from its use of oc instead of the northern oui for 'yes.'