Lawrence, (1) capital of Douglas county, Kansas, on the Kansas River, 34 miles SSW. of Leavenworth by rail. It is the seat of the state university (1864), and has manufactures of flour, castings, furniture, etc. Pork-packing is extensively carried on. Lawrence was founded in 1854 by Free-soil settlers, shared in the violent struggle against slavery, and was partly burned by Quantrell's guerillas in 1863. Pop. 11,000. - (2) One of the capitals of Essex county, Massachusetts, and an important manufacturing city, on the Merrimack River, 26 miles N. of Boston by rail. The river, which here falls 28 feet in half a mile, is crossed by a dam of granite, 900 feet long and 40 high; and channels on either bank conduct the water to the mills. These, some of them amongst the largest in the world, manufacture cotton and woollen goods, cloth, and paper; and engines, boilers, machinery, clothing, hats, etc. are also produced here. Pop. (1870) 28,921 ; (1880) 39,151; (190Q) 62,559.
Lawrence, St. See St Lawrence.