Leb'anon, a mountain-range in Syria, extending from Horns in the north to Mount Hermon in the south. The name is derived from a Semitic root meaning 'white,' and was probably given, not because the peaks are snow-clad even in summer, but because of the whitish colour of the limestone rocks. They are divided into two parallel ranges, the Lebanon on the west and the Anti-Lebanon (or Anti-Libanus) on the east. Between them lies the deep valley of the Buka'a (anc. ;le-Syria), 4 to 6 miles wide, which is watered by the Litany and El-Asi (anc. Orontes). The former flows SW. and W. to the sea a little north of Tyre; whilst the latter flows NE. till, after crossing the plains of Hamath, it turns W. to the Mediterranean. The highest summits occur in the north in both ranges : in Lebanon they vary from 10,018 (El-Kazib) to 7000 feet and less, and in Anti-Lebanon are about 8000 or 9000 feet. In both ranges the eastern versant is the steeper and sterner. The western valleys and the lower slopes are generally verdant. Vines, mulberry-trees, olive-groves, and orchards (nuts and figs) abound everywhere. The higher slopes are in many districts covered with forests of oak, cypress, pine, plane, etc. Contrary to the current belief, remains of the great cedar forest of Solomon's time exist in more places than the single grove of 377 trees at the head of Kedisha Valley. Streams of clear water are numerous. The inhabitants (estimated at 221,000) are a hardy, ruddy race of people, of Syrian (Aramaean) descent, who keep large herds of sheep and goats. The predominating element is the (Christian) Maronites ; next come the Druses, heretical Moslems. After the bloody quarrels of the Druses and Maronites in 1860, the district of Lebanon was separated (1861) from the Turkish pashalik of Syria, and put under a Christian governor, the European powers constituting themselves the ' guardians' of the new province.


Lebanon, capital of Lebanon county, Pennsylvania, 28 miles W. of Reading, with ironworks and mills. Pop. 20,000.