Leeds, the first town in Yorkshire, and fifth in England in point of population, is a parliamentary, municipal, and county borough, returning since 1885 five members to parliament. By rail it is 25 1/2 miles SW. of York, 196 NNW. of London, and 112 SSE. of Carlisle. It is situated in the north-west of the West Riding of Yorkshire, in the valley of the Aire, and is the seat of important manufactures, especially of clothing in all its branches. The woollen trade exceeds in extent that of any other part of England ; and the iron industries, employing about 30,000 persons, are now as important as the woollen manufactures. The manufacture of leather is carried on in some of the largest tanneries in the kingdom, and about 100 firms are engaged in making boots and shoes. Other manufactures are those of locomotives, machines, glass, ready-made clothes, tobacco, oil, chemicals, earthenware, worsted, and silk. St Peter's Church in Kirkgate, rebuilt in 1838 at a cost of 29,770, is 180 feet long by 86 wide ; the tower is 139 feet high, and contains a peal of thirteen bells. St John's, New Brig-gate, consecrated by Archbishop Neile in 1634, is an almost unique example of a 'Laudian' church, and still retains the original fittings. The town-hall (1858) has a tower 225 feet high, and a richly-decorated great hall, with one of the largest organs in Europe. There are colossal statues of Queen Victoria and the Prince-Consort in the vestibule, and of Wellington in the front of the building. Contiguous to the town-hall are the municipal buildings (1884-88, comprising also reading-room, free library, and fine art gallery), and the school-board offices. The General Infirmary was erected in 1868 from designs by Sir G. G. Scott, at a cost of 120,000; the mechanics' institute (1867) contains a lecture-hall accommodating 1700 persons; and the grammar-school (1859), from designs by Barry, is a cruciform Decorated structure. Other buildings are the Royal Exchange (1875); the fine oval corn exchange; the new general post-office, on the site of the old coloured-cloth hall (demolished 1889); the Coliseum; the Philosophical Hall, with a fine museum; the Wesleyan training-college (1868); Turkish Baths; Beckett's Bank, a fine work by Sir G. G. Scott. There is also a library of 80,000 volumes, founded by Priestley in 1768. The University of Leeds, which received its charter in 1903, was founded in 1874 as the Yorkshire College, and was a member of the Victoria University ; in 1905 it had 28 professors, of whom eight were in the medical faculty. In 1885 it was housed in a handsome Gothic pile. The Central Higher Grade School (1880) provides for 2000 scholars. Since 1897 the mayor of Leeds is called Lord Mayor. The municipality owns the markets, gas and water works, tramways, electric light, free libraries, and cemeteries, subsidises technical education, and provides garden allotments. Kirkstall Abbey (q.v.) is about 3 miles from Leeds. Roundhay Park, 2 miles from Leeds, was bought by the corporation in 1872, at a cost of 140,000, and con-verted into a recreation ground. Near Adel Church (erected 1140), about 4 miles from Leeds, was a Roman station. Pop. (1851) 172,270 ; (1881) 309,112 ; (1901) 428,935. Amongst Leeds worthies have been Dean Hook; Dr Priestley; Cope and Rhodes, artists; the Teales, physicians, etc.; besides the Becketts, the Baines's, the Gotts, the Fairbairns, the Denisons, and other families identified with the town. See Ralph Thoresby's Ducatus Leodiensis (1715); Baines's Historic Sketch of Leeds (1822); and Jackson's Guide to Leeds (1889).