Leghorn (Ital. Livorno), the third seaport of Italy, is situated on the west coast, 13 miles by rail SW. of Pisa, and 62 W. by S. of Florence. Its importance dates from the decline of Pisa; its growth was especially rapid after it fell into the hands of Florence in 1421. Cosimo I. declared it a free port, and invited foreign traders to settle there. Early in the 19th century it was a great depot for the British trade with the Levant. It ceased to be a free port in 1868 ; and its foreign commerce, carried on chiefly with Britain (Newcastle and Cardiff), France (Marseilles), and the United States, is less than its coasting trade. The imports include spirits, sugar, dyeing materials, woven goods, corn and flour, and machinery; the exports, wine, silk, marble, olive-oil, boracic acid, hemp, iron, preserved fruits, leather, coral, and straw hats (' Leghorn hats'). The harbour (improved in 1854-63) is an enclosed basin, on which stand two arsenals and numerous shipbuilding-yards. The roadstead is protected by an artificial breakwater (1883). There has been a lighthouse since 1303, and outside the harbour stands a lazaretto. Besides shipbuilding, the most important industry is the manufacture of coral ornaments. The north-western portion of the city is intersected by numerous canals, and called 'New Venice.' The most interesting buildings are the cathedral (17th century), its facade designed by Inigo Jones, the Jewish synagogue (next in size to that of Amsterdam), the former grand-ducal palace (1605), the Academy of Sciences, and the naval academy. The sulphur-springs and sea-bathing attract many visitors. Leghorn is defended by forts, bastions, etc., constructed for the most part in 1835-37. Smollett and Francis Horner lie buried in the English cemetery. The composer Mascagni was born here. Pop. of the city (1861) 83,543; (1871)
80,948; (1881) 78,988; of the commune (1871) 97,096; (1905) 100,000.